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Table 2 Selected characteristics of early breastfeeding practices by MAL-ED study site

From: Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

MAL-ED study sites 1 BGD INV NEB PKN BRF PEL SAV TZH
Initiation (%)         
  Within 1 hour 60.9 59.1 40.8 7.4 46.3 73.7 59.7 83.2
  1 - 24 h 33.6 36.4 49.2 71.8 51.5 23.9 35.5 14.8
  1 - 3 d 5.1 4.5 9.2 18.6 1.3 1.4 2.6 1.6
  4 + d 0.4 0.0 0.8 2.3 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.4
  Never 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0
Not fed colostrum (%) 1.6 9.9 3.4 16.4 1.7 2.7 4.5 8.6
Prelacteal feeding (%) 13.3 12.4 17.7 63.2 6.9 9.2 3.7 5.1
Exclusively Breastfed at 30 d (%)2 84.7 81.0 55.5 4.5 59.7 38.2 29.5 55.9
Fully Breastfed at 30 d (%)2,3 90.6 87.6 70.6 7.4 68.4 77.1 58.6 58.2
Partially Breastfed at 30 d (%)4 9.4 11.2 29.4 92.6 29.4 22.5 36.6 41.8
Completely weaned by 30 d (%)5 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.3 2.6 0.0
  1. 1Abbreviations: BGD Dhaka, Bangladesh; BRF Fortaleza, Brazil; INV Vellore, India; NEB Bhaktapur Nepal; PKN Naushero Feroze, Pakistan; PEL Loreto, Peru; SAV Venda, South Africa; TZH Haydom Tanzania.
  2. 2Based on multiple assessments through the first month of life, assessed at ~30 d.
  3. 3Those exclusively or predominantly breastfed, assessed at ~30 d.
  4. 4Those who have received formula, animal milks or semi-solids in addition to breast milk, assessed at ~30 d.
  5. 5Those no longer receiving breast milk (verified by subsequent reporting after ~ 30 d).