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Table 2 Comparison of Referral Patterns During the Early (ENP) and Late (LNP) Neonatal Periods by Sex of the Newborn

From: Sex differences in morbidity and care-seeking during the neonatal period in rural southern Nepal

Reason for Referral % Boys (n) % Girls (n) OR (Boys/Girls) 95 % CI
ENP (N = 9127) ENP (N = 8544)
LNP (N = 9485) LNP (N = 8852)
% Referred     
 Early Neonatal Period 49.6 % (4526) 51.9 % (4433) 0.91 0.86 – 0.96
 Late Neonatal Period 32.5 % (3083) 30.0 % (2654) 1.12 1.06 – 1.20
Unconscious     
 Early Neonatal Period 0.05 % (5) 0.06 % (5) 0.94 0.27 – 3.24
 Late Neonatal Period 0.1 % (6) 0.03 % (3) 1.87 0.43 – 8.06
Fever     
 Early Neonatal Period 1.2 % (111) 1.3 % (110) 0.94 0.74 – 1.21
 Late Neonatal Period 0.8 % (74) 0.8 % (74) 0.93 0.67 – 1.30
Pneumonia     
 Early Neonatal Period 0.9 % (86) 0.8 % (64) 1.26 0.91 – 1.74
 Late Neonatal Period 0.6 % (55) 0.6 % (55) 0.93 0.64 – 1.36
Convulsions/ Stiffness     
 Early Neonatal Period 2.4 % (218) 1.7 % (143) 1.44 1.16 – 1.78
 Late Neonatal Period 1.0 % (94) 0.8 % (74) 1.19 0.89 – 1.59
Yellow Body/ Eyes     
 Early Neonatal Period 2.1 % (188) 1.3 % (111) 1.60 1.26 – 2.02
 Late Neonatal Period 2.7 % (257) 1.5 % (131) 1.85 1.52 – 2.26
Blood in Stool     
 Early Neonatal Period 0.2 % (16) 0.3 % (22) 0.68 0.36 – 1.28
 Late Neonatal Period 0.3 % (28) 0.3 % (25) 1.05 0.62 – 1.75
Persistent Watery Stool     
 Early Neonatal Period 3.6 % (325) 3.6 % (308) 0.99 0.84 – 1.16
 Late Neonatal Period 6.9 % (651) 6.0 % (533) 1.15 1.02 – 1.30
Hypothermia     
 Early Neonatal Period 19.5 % (1782) 24.7 % (2108) 0.74 0.69 – 0.79
 Late Neonatal Period 2.6 % (243) 2.8 % (243) 0.93 0.78 – 1.11
Severe Skin Infection     
 Early Neonatal Period 8.0 % (732) 6.6 % (561) 1.24 1.11 – 1.39
 Late Neonatal Period 11.6 % (1102) 10.5 % (926) 1.13 1.03 – 1.23
Cord Infection I     
 Early Neonatal Period 14.2 % (1300) 15.7 % (1337) 0.90 0.82 – 0.97
 Late Neonatal Period 1.5 % (138) 1.4 % (124) 1.04 0.82 – 1.32
Cord Infection II     
 Early Neonatal Period 11.9 % (1084) 11.2 % (954) 1.07 0.97 – 1.18
 Late Neonatal Period 6.0 % (564) 6.4 % (564) 0.93 0.83 – 1.04
Any Two in List     
 Early Neonatal Period 6.6 % (602) 5.8 % (492) 1.16 1.02 – 1.30
 Late Neonatal Period 6.4 % (602) 6.1 % (540) 1.04 0.93 – 1.17
Other     
 Early Neonatal Period 3.5 % (322) 2.8 % (243) 1.25 1.04 – 1.51
 Late Neonatal Period 3.2 % (307) 2.5 % (220) 1.31 1.10 – 1.56