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Table 1 Indicators and proxy measures of food security determinants

From: Socio-economic determinants of household food security and women’s dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Food security determinant Indicator or proxy measure Survey question
• Response option
Food availability
Household food production Ownership of land Does your household own any land (other than the homestead land)?
• Yes; No; Don’t know
Ownership of livestock Does your household own any livestock, farm animals or poultry?
• Yes; No; Don’t know
Use of vegetable gardens Does your household grow its own fruits and vegetables in a homestead garden or plot?
• Yes; No; Don’t know
Regional and global food production Not available Not available
Food system infrastructure Not available Not available
Food access
Household wealth Principal Component Analysis Which of these do you presently have in your household?
• Electricity; fan; mobile phone; non-mobile phone; fridge; almirah/wardrobe; table; chair/bench; cot/bed; mattress; sewing machine; watch/clock; generator; bicycle; motorcycle/scooter/tempo; animal-drawn cart; car/truck/bus/microbus; boat; rickshaw/van
What is the main material of the floor in the house where the woman lives? (Record your observation)
• Earth/sand; wood planks; palm/bamboo; parquet or polished wood; ceramic tiles; cement; carpet; other; don’t know.
What is the main material of the roof in the house where the woman lives? (Record your observation)
• No roof; thatch/palm leaf; bamboo; wood planks; cardboard; tin; wood; ceramic tiles; cement; stone with lime/cement; roofing shingles; other; don’t know.
What is the main material of the exterior walls in the house where the woman lives? (Record your observation)
• No walls; cane/palm/trunks/straw; dirt; bamboo/bamboo with mud; stone/stone with mud; plywood; cardboard; tin; cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; wood planks/shingles; other; don’t know.
Does your household own any homestead? If no, probe: Does your household own homestead in any other places?
• Yes; No; Don’t know
Food and non-food prices Not available Not available
Social security Not available Not available
Women’s agency Freedom for women to always or sometimes access the market by herself Are you allowed to go to the market/ shops without the company of another adult?
• Always; sometimes; never allowed to go without company; never allowed to go even with company
Involvement in decision-making relating to daily household expenditures (by herself or with her husband). Who has the greatest say in the decision regarding how household money is spent for daily necessities, such as food?
• Woman; woman and her husband jointly; husband; mother-in-law; father-in-law; mother; father; sister-in-law; brother-in-law; other family members; other; don’t know.
Food system infrastructure Not available Not available
Ownership of cooking or food storage facilities Not available Not available
Food utilisation
Knowledge of nutritional requirements Knowledge of malnutrition prevention (number of methods named) What can women do to stay well nourished? What else? Do not prompt. (Multiple answer)
• Eat adequate amount of nourishing/vitamin rich food every day; eat plenty of vegetables; eat eggs/milk/dairy products; prevent childhood (and early) marriage; prevent adolescent pregnancy; eat more food during pregnancy; adequate rest during pregnancy; prevent frequent pregnancy/space births by more than 2 ½ years; increase food quantity during lactation; maintain hygiene and cleanliness/look after one’s health; other (specify); don’t know.
Women’s literacy Can you read this passage for me please?
(Interviewer to decide the ability level)
• Easily; with difficulty; cannot read.
Access to media (ownership of radio or television) Taken from asset score, which is partially used in the PCA. Which of these do you presently have in your household?
• Radio/tape recorder; television with cable; television without cable.
Household size Not available Not available
Larger household Number of women of reproductive age in the household How many women aged 15–49 live in your household?
• Number of women
Intra-household food distribution and food control Not available Not available
Cultural practices and individual practices Not available Not available