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Table 4 Associations between possible food security determinants and women’s dietary diversity score

From: Socio-economic determinants of household food security and women’s dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Possible determinants of WDDS Total WDDS Crudea Adjustedb
% (n) Mean (95 % CI) Coeff. (95 % CI) p value Coeff. (95 % CI) p value
Total 100 (n = 2620) 3.8 (range 1,9)     
Respondent characteristics
Age 2620   −0.01 (−0.01, 0.00) 0.036 0.00 (−0.01, 0.01) 0.973
Religion       
Islamc 90.2 (2328) 3.7 (3.6, 3.9)     
Hindu 9.8 (292) 4.2 (3.7, 4.6) 0.42 (−0.06, 0.90) 0.075 0.32 (0.00, 0.65) 0.052
Pregnancy status       
Not pregnantc 94.7 (2480) 3.8 (3.7, 3.9)     
Pregnant 5.3 (140) 4.0 (3.6, 4.5) 0.26 (−0.13, 0.65) 0.154 0.21 (−0.07, 0.48) 0.118
Food availability determinants       
Ownership of land       
Does not own land c 54.2 (1443) 3.6 (3.5, 3.7)     
Owns land 45.8 (1174) 4.0 (3.9, 4.1) 0.39 (0.30, 0.48) 0.000 0.10 (−0.01, 0.21) 0.070
Ownership of livestock       
Do not own livestockc 19.6 (552) 3.7 (3.6, 3.9) 0.06 (−0.10, 0.23) 0.369 −0.06 (−0.21, 0.08) 0.327
Own livestock 80.4 (2068) 3.8 (3.7, 3.9)     
Use of vegetable gardens       
Do not use gardensc 48.3 (1199) 3.6 (3.5, 3.8)     
Use gardens 51.7 (1421) 3.9 (3.8, 4.1) 0.32 (0.19, 0.46) 0.001 0.20 (0.11, 0.31) 0.003
Food access determinants
Wealth (PCA)       
Lowest tertilec 32.2 (876) 3.4 (3.3, 3.5)     
Middle tertile 32.8 (815) 3.7 (3.5, 3.9) 0.33 (0.11, 0.55) 0.011 0.17 (−0.03, 0.37) 0.083
Top tertile 35.0 (918) 4.2 (4.0, 4.3) 0.85 (0.59, 1.12) 0.000 0.46 (0.24, 0.68) 0.002
Freedom travel to market alone       
Neverc 63.0 (1718) 3.8 (3.6, 4.0)     
Always or sometimes 37.0 (902) 3.8 (3.5, 4.0) −0.05 (−0.47, 0.36) 0.763 −0.04 (−0.40, 0.33) 0.810
Women’s involvement in decision-making relating to household food expenditure
No 63.2 (1668) 3.8 (3.7, 3.9)     
Yes 36.8 (952) 3.8 (3.6, 4.0) 0.02 (−0.20, 0.23) 0.849 0.03 (−0.16, 0.21) 0.731
Food utilisation determinants
Knowledge of undernutrition prevention methods (number of methods known)
0-2 76.3 (1963) 3.7 (3.6, 3.9)     
≥3 23.7 (657) 4.0 (3.7, 4.4) 0.30 (−0.09, 0.68) 0.112 0.14 (−0.16, 0.45) 0.296
Women’s literacy
Cannot readc 36.2 (940) 3.4 (3.3, 3.5)     
Can read 63.8 (1680) 4.0 (3.9, 4.1) 0.59 (0.46, 0.72) 0.000 0.37 (0.20, 0.54) 0.002
Access to media       
Do not own radio or television 64.1 (1698) 3.6 (3.5, 3.7)     
Own radio or television 35.9 (922) 4.2 (3.9, 4.4) 0.58 (0.27, 0.88) 0.004 0.24 (−0.01, 0.50) 0.056
Number of women of reproductive age in the household
1 womanc 77.4 (1985) 3.7 (3.6, 3.8)     
>1 woman 22.6 (635) 4.0 (3.8, 4.2) 0.33 (0.22, 0.43) 0.000 0.17 (0.05, 0.29) 0.012
  1. We have a maximum of 6.73 % missing data on background information and food utilization determinants, a maximum of 6.84 % missing data on food availability determinants, and a maximum of 7.12 % missing data on food access determinants
  2. aAdjusted for clustering and stratification only
  3. bAdjusted for socio-demographic characteristics (age and religion), pregnancy status and the other determinants of food security
  4. cReference group