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Table 3 Odds ratios from ordinal logistic regressions predicting Ethiopian children’s immunization status using individual measures of women’s autonomyae

From: "Girl Power!": The Relationship between Women's Autonomy and Children's Immunization Coverage in Ethiopia

  Partially immunized (vs. no vaccines) Fully immunized (vs. no vaccines)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Individual measures of women’s autonomyf       
Person who makes final decision on household purchases       
 Mother 2.11 1.92 1.86 2.12 1.68 1.67
  (0.84, 5.31) (0.74, 4.99) (0.74, 4.71) (0.70, 6.44) (0.52, 5.39) (0.452, 5.32)
 Joint 1.18 1.07 1.10 1.30 1.07 1.09
  (0.78, 1.78) (0.70, 1.63) (0.72, 1.66) (0.80, 2.11) (0.65, 1.75) (0.66, 1.77)
Person who makes final decision on visits to family/friends       
 Mother 1.15 1.01 1.00 1.55 1.28 1.26
  (0.66, 2.03) (0.56, 1.82) (0.55, 1.81) (0.73, 3.28) (0.60, 2.72) (0.58, 2.72)
 Joint 0.97 0.94 0.97 1.19 1.19 1.23
  (0.61, 1.53) (0.59, 1.50) (0.60, 1.55) (0.70, 2.05) (0.69, 2.05) (0.71, 2.13)
Person who makes final decisions regarding respondent’s earnings       
 Mother 2.78**** 2.78 3.38**** 4.63* 4.96* 6.53**
  (0.87, 8.89) (0.82, 9.40) (1.00, 1.42) (1.34, 15.98) (1.22, 20.18) (1.68, 25.54)
 Joint 3.16** 3.57** 4.29** 4.71** 6.30*** 8.13***
  (1.34, 7.49) (1.53, 8.35) (1.69, 10.89) (1.86, 11.89) (2.27, 17.54) (2.59, 25.34)
Person who makes final decisions on respondent’s health care       
 Mother 1.40 1.47 1.42 1.91 2.00**** 1.79
  (0.70, 2.81) (0.73, 2.98) (0.68, 2.93) (0.87, 4.17) (0.90, 4.41) (0.79, 4.10)
 Joint 1.08 1.10 1.06 1.22 1.28 1.19
  (0.71, 1.64) (0.72, 1.70) (0.67, 1.67) (0.71, 2.09) (0.74, 2.22) (0.67, 2.12)
Health care       
Delivered at home   0.87 0.96   0.58 0.74
   (0.31, 2.45) (0.37, 2.50)   (0.19, 1.81) (0.26, 2.13)
Antenatal care   2.75*** 2.54***   6.04*** 5.08***
   (1.64, 4.60) (1.54, 4.18)   (3.51, 10.39) (2.98, 8.65)
Mothers educationb       
 Primary school    1.78*    2.30**
    (1.08, 2.94)    (1.31, 4.04)
 Complete secondary school and higher    2.28    3.66****
    (0.47, 11.11)    (0.83, 16.27)
Fathers’ educationb       
 Primary school    1.10    0.91
    (0.72, 1.68)    (0.55, 1.46)
 Secondary school    1.05    0.80
    (0.35, 3.10)    (0.24, 2.67)
 Higher    1.07    0.87
    (0.35, 3.31)    (0.25, 2.98)
Occupationc       
 Manual occupation    0.56    0.57
    (0.26, 1.20)    (0.22, 1.50)
 Agriculture occupation    1.34    1.64****
    (0.85, 2.11)    (0.93, 2.89)
 Professional occupation    1.37    1.31
    (0.77, 2.40)    (0.69, 2.50)
Wealth indexd       
 Poorer    0.74    1.06
    (0.43, 1.27)    (0.55, 2.06)
 Middle    0.66****    0.74
    (0.41, 1.06)    (0.40, 1.37)
 Richer    0.52*    0.91
    (0.31, 0.87)    (0.47, 1.78)
 Richest    1.09    2.87****
    (0.42, 2.85)    (0.97, 8.46)
Constant 1.40 0.78 0.27 1.08 0.37 0.69
  (0.21, 9.18) (0.12, 5.15) (0.04, 1.69) (0.14, 8.33) (0.05, 2.92) (0.01, 0.45)
Observations 2941 2941 2941 2941 2941 2941
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.10
  2. aEach model controls for women’s religion, mother’s age in years, polygamous marriage, age at first marriage, child’s age, child sex, number of children under 5 years of age in the household, region, and urban/rural residential location
  3. bReference category is no education
  4. cReference category is no occupation
  5. dReference category is poorest
  6. eConfidence interval in parentheses
  7. fReference group is husband makes final decision
  8. Source: 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys