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Table 1 Baseline comparison of demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus enrolled either to receive probiotic or placebo

From: Is there a value for probiotic supplements in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized clinical trial

Baseline measures Intervention Placebo p value
(N = 29) (N = 27)
Maternal age 28.14 ± 6.24 26.48 ± 5.23 0.36
Family history of DM    
 Yes 16 (55.2 %) 12 (44.4 %) 0.59
 No 13 (44.8 %) 15 (55.6 %)
Educational level    
 Under graduate diploma 4 (13.8 %) 5 (18.5 %) 0.91
 High school diploma 17 (58.6 %) 15 (55.6 %)
 Academic education 8 (27.8 %) 7 (25.9 %)
Employment    
 Employed 10 (34.5 %) 9 (33.3 %) 1.00
 Unemployed or housewife 19 (65.5 %) 18 (66.7 %)
Residence    
 Urban    
 Rural 17 (58.6 %) 15 (55.6 %) 1.00
12 (41.4 %) 12 (44.4 %)
Physical activity    
 Low 22 (75.9 %) 17 (63.0 %)  
 Moderate 7 (24.1 %) 10 (37.0 %) 0.38
 High 0 0  
Weight (kg) 83.27 ± 12.06 78.67 ± 11.09 0.14
Height (cm) 162.68 ± 5.65 162.14 ± 5.93 0.72
Body mass index (kg/m2) 31.41 ± 3.92 29.86 ± 3.39 0.12
  1. Numeric scales are reported as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical measures are reported as frequency (percent)