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Table 3 Changes in glucose metabolism indices among women with gestational diabetes receiving probiotic supplement versus placebo

From: Is there a value for probiotic supplements in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized clinical trial

Glucose metabolism indices Probiotic (n = 29) Placebo (n = 27) p value (Independent samples t test) p value (ANCOVA)
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)     
 Before trial 103.65 (1.34) 100.89 (1.52) 0.17 0.02
 After trial 88.37 (2.05) 93.59 (3.61) 0.20  
 P (paired samples t test) <0.001 0.02   
 Absolute change −15.27 (1.83) −7.30 (3.04) 0.02  
 Relative change −14.66 (1.77) −7.38 (15.09) 0.03  
Fasting serum insulin (μIU/ml)     
 Before trial 5.95 (0.50) 5.60 (0.37) 0.58 0.09
 After trial 5.15 (0.41) 6.12 (0.50) 0.14  
 P (paired samples t test) 0.16 0.30   
 Absolute difference −0.80 (0.56) 0.52 (0.49) 0.08  
 Relative difference 10.55 (18.55) 14.55 (9.21) 0.85  
HOMA-IR index     
 Before trial 1.52 (0.12) 1.38 (0.08) 0.41 0.03
 After trial 1.11 (0.09) 1.40 (0.11) 0.06  
 P (paired samples t test) 0.007 0.93   
 Absolute difference −0.40 (0.13) 0.01 (0.12) 0.03  
 Relative difference −6.74 (14.84) 6.45 (9.22) 0.46  
QUICKI index     
 Before trial 0.15 (0.00) 0.15 (0.00) 0.92 0.11
 After trial 0.16 (0.00) 0.16 (0.00) 0.11  
 P (paired samples t test) 0.02 0.46   
 Absolute difference 0.008 (0.003) 0.002 (0.002) 0.16  
 Relative difference 5.76 (2.16) 1.38 (1.69) 0.12  
  1. HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check