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Table 4 Status of chemical parameters by WHO and Bangladesh drinking water standard (%)

From: Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics WHO drinking water standard (mg/L) Bangladesh drinking water standard (mg/L)
Mn Fe NaCl As Mn Fe NaCl As
≤0.4 >0.4 ≤0.3 >0.3 ≤250 >250 ≤0.01 >0.01 ≤0.1 >0.1 ≤1.0 >1.0 ≤600 >600 ≤0.05 >0.05
Sex
 Male 50.3 52.8 50.8 50.8 51.7 50.3 50.0 52.3 50.3 51.2 51.8 48.9 51.9 46.1 50.2 56.7
 Female 49.7 47.2 49.2 49.2 48.3 49.7 50.0 47.7 49.7 48.8 48.2 51.1 48.1 53.9 49.8 43.3
p value 0.462 0.995 0.643 0.691 0.709 0.290 0.109 0.495
Age(years)
 ≤4 7.1 8.3 8.7 7.0 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.5 6.5 7.8 4.6 6.9 7.2 7.0 7.0 6.7
 5-20 35.6 30.9 37.0 34.3 35.0 35.7 35.6 39.3 37.4 32.5 34.5 34.5 35.5 34.9 35.1 53.3
 21–40 30.4 32.8 28.7 31.3 32.0 32.1 31.8 23.4 29.2 32.3 30.3 32.2 31.9 32.8 30.1 20.0
 41–60 20.0 21.5 18.9 20.5 20.2 17.9 17.2 24.3 20.4 20.2 20.9 18.9 19.0 17.9 19.3 20.0
 ≥61 7.0 6.4 6.8 6.9 5.6 7.2 8.4 6.5 6.5 7.2 6.7 7.5 6.4 7.4 8.5 90.0
p value 0.6623 0.720 0.707 0.358 0.318 0.805 0.975 0.199
Educational level
 No education 7.1 9.8 8.8 7.3 9.5 6.8 7.5 5.0 5.7 9.4 8.0 7.1 8.0 7.1 6.9 5.0
 Primary 20.0 21.2 19.2 20.4 25.9 22.2 15.0 28.3 19.9 20.7 20.9 18.9 26.3 12.7 17.9 30.0
 Secondary 20.6 26.5 14.4 22.8 17.2 21.2 21.1 20.0 19.4 23.8 19.5 24.2 19.2 21.4 20.8 20.0
 Higher secondary and above 52.2 42.4 57.6 49.4 47.5 49.8 56.4 46.7 55.1 46.2 51.7 49.8 46.5 58.7 54.3 45.0
p value 0.166 0.152 0.257 0.175 0.032** 0.443 0.010** 0.623
Household economic status
 Ultra-poor 30.1 32.2 24.4 31.8 21.3 19.1 26.4 27.5 27.7 32.8 30.2 30.4 20.3 18.5 25.9 36.7
 Poor 36.1 42.7 36.1 37.5 42.3 38.6 33.5 42.2 39.0 35.8 36.0 38.3 41.9 31.9 33.6 63.3
 Non-poor 33.8 25.1 39.5 30.7 36.4 42.3 40.1 30.3 33.3 31.4 33.8 31.3 37.7 49.6 40.5 0.0
p value 0.018** 0.010** 0.107 0.168 0.097* 0.551 0.003*** 0.000***
Access to media at home
 No access to media 48.4 50.9 35.7 51.7 82.6 58.3 65.3 35.8 46.6 51.2 52.7 40.8 66.2 76.7 56.1 56.7
 Access to media 51.6 49.1 64.3 48.3 17.4 41.7 34.7 64.2 53.4 48.8 47.3 59.2 33.8 23.3 43.9 43.3
p value 0.447 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.070* 0.000*** 0.002*** 0.950
NGO membership     
 No membership 54.0 57.3 56.4 54.2 60.7 59.3 58.7 61.5 54.0 55.4 52.2 59.2 58.6 65.5 60.4 50.0
 Member of any NGO 46.0 42.7 43.6 45.8 39.3 40.7 41.3 38.5 46.0 44.6 47.8 40.8 41.4 34.5 39.6 50.0
p value 0.324 0.513 0.622 0.622 0.579 0.009** 0.051** 0.265
Wealth index
 Lowest 22.1 27.0 28.9 21.7 22.6 21.1 38.4 0.0 20.1 25.9 25.0 20.9 22.0 20.4 28.8 0.0
 Second 20.2 21.7 17.3 21.2 18.3 19.1 12.2 9.2 15.6 24.8 21.5 18.2 17.2 25.8 11.1 13.3
 Middle 19.0 12.4 19.2 17.5 31.2 24.3 28.3 20.2 21.2 14.7 20.9 13.2 26.6 29.4 26.9 13.3
 Fourth 17.0 20.6 16.9 17.8 20.2 17.2 5.5 48.6 17.1 18.2 16.4 19.8 20.0 11.3 15.2 60.0
 Highest 21.6 18.4 17.7 21.8 7.7 18.3 15.6 22.0 26.0 16.4 16.2 28.0 14.2 13.1 18.0 13.3
p value 0.031** 0.066* 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.004*** 0.000***
Water sources by type
 Shallow tubewell 38.2 78.3 72.9 39.4 74.2 28.4 31.0 70.6 43.0 47.8 42.9 47.2 52.8 21.1 40.2 76.7
 Deep tubewell 50.0 21.7 27.1 48.8 1.8 68.6 69.0 29.4 49.4 40.4 42.2 50.9 33.1 78.9 59.8 23.3
 Others 11.8 0.0 0.0 11.8 24.1 2.9 0.0 0.0 7.6 11.8 14.9 1.9 14.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
p value 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000***
Division
 Dhaka 6.6 12.7 11.7 6.8 36.0 40.1 9.1 67.9 6.5 8.9 7.4 8.5 38.1 39.7 22.7 76.7
 Chittagong 25.4 39.7 50.8 23.0 1.6 0.0 16.5 9.2 28.7 26.9 27.2 28.4 0.8 0.0 15.6 0.0
 Rajshahi 9.3 17.2 10.2 10.8 2.7 0.0 - - 8.3 13.1 10.8 9.0 1.4 0.0 - -
 Khulna 9.5 1.5 0.0 9.8 1.0 19.8 20.2 16.5 6.5 9.7 7.1 9.5 9.0 25.9 20.9 0.0
 Barisal 32.3 5.2 20.3 29.0 24.1 38.5 54.1 0.0 32.9 22.5 41.2 6.9 32.2 34.5 40.8 0.0
 Sylhet 16.9 23.6 7.1 20.4 34.6 1.7 0.0 6.4 17.2 19.0 6.3 37.6 18.5 0.0 0.0 23.3
p value 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000***
HHa member (%) 82 18 17.8 82.2 40.6 59.4 68.9 31.1 48.7 51.3 61.4 38.6 81.6 18.4 91.5 8.5
HH (%) 82 18 18 82 41 59 69 31 49 51 61 39 82 18 91.5 8.5
  1. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01
  2. aHousehold