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Table 1 Comparison of tryptophan levels in HIV/AIDS patients of this study and that of developed countries

From: Tryptophan depletion in context of the inflammatory and general nutritional status of a low-income South African HIV-infected population

  A B C D p value
Controls Total group ART—naïve ART
Present study (gc) 43.6 (n = 60) 24.4 (n = 105) 22.0 (n = 30) 25.1 (n = 75)
(71.0% on ART)
<0.001 (A–B)
<0.001 (A–C)
<0.001 (A–D)
0.03 (C–D)
Developed countries:
Werner et al. 1988 [10] (h) 91.0 44.8 (n = 11) - - <0.0001 (A–C)
Larsson et al. 1989 [11] (h) 39.7 (n = 14) 28.4 (n = 24) - - <0.05 (A–B)
Fuchs et al. 1990 [12] (h) 91.1 (n = 11) 48.8 dementia
70.5
- - <0.05 (A–B)
<0.01 (A–B)
Fuchs et al. 1990 [9] (h) 39.7 29.8 (n = 22) - - -
Fuchs et al. 1991 [13] (h) 91.0 57.0 (n = 42) (62 % naïve) (38 % on ART) <0.01 (A–B)
Heyes et al. 1992 [14] (h) 70.9 (n = 20) 40.2 (n = 107) - - <0.0001 (A–B)
Gisselen et al. 1994 [15] (h) - 29.4 (n = 14) 29.4 (pre-ART) 36.2 (post-ART) <0.01 (C–D)
Hortin et al. 1994 [16] (fl) 46 (n = 20) 22 (n = 20) - (85 % on ART) <0.001 (A–B)
Laurichesse et al. 1998 [17] (fl) 59 (n = 8) 51 (n = 7) - - <0.05 (A–B)
Huengsberg et al. 1998 [18] (h) 56.3 (n = 72) 50.1 (n = 82) - - <0.01 (A–B)
Look et al. 2000 [19] (gc) 52.6 (n = 55) 44.6 (n = 17)
37.4 (n = 7) AIDS
44.6 (pre-ART) 53.0 (post-ART) 0.14 (A–B)
0.009 (A–B)
0.039 (C–D)
Murray et al. 2001 [20] (h) 49.3 69.2 (post niacin treatment) - - -
Zangerle et al. 2002 [8] (h) 65.8 (n = 40) 44.1 (n = 45) 44.1 (pre-ART) 53.2 (post-ART) <0.001 (A–B)
<0.001 (A–D)
0.001 (C–D)
Schroeksnadel et al. 2008 [6] (h) - 51.4 (n = 152) - (70 % on ART) -
  1. Analytical methods used: gc gas chromatography mass spectrometry, fl fluorometric procedure, h high-performance liquid chromatography