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Table 3 Dietary intakes of groups and adjusted group differences (95 % CI) of posttest

From: Effect of lifestyle interventions of pregnant women on their dietary habits, lifestyle behaviors, and weight gain: a randomized controlled trial

Groups Control Intervention Adjusted mean difference to controlsa  
Variables Pre Post Pre Post P valuea
Energy intake (kkal/day) 1867 ± 587 1888 ± 581 1731 ± 638 2087 ± 664 +222 (−54–499) 0.113
Protein intake (g) 58.6 ± 5.8 58.9 ± 5.8 55.6 ± 2.3 73.6 ± 3.3 +15.6 (4.1–27.1) 0.008b
(% of energy) 13 ± 0 12 ± 8 13 ± 2 14 ± 4 +1.9 (0.2–3.7) 0.025b
Carbohydrate intake (g) 242.7 ± 96.7 237.2 ± 94.2 219.6 ± 89.4 255.7 ± 107.6 +23.5 (−21.6–68.6) 0.304
(% of energy) 34 ± 7 36 ± 6 35 ± 6 35 ± 7 −0.5 (−5.3–4.1) 0.806
Fat intake (g) 71.2 ± 23.8 75.9 ± 21.3 67.7 ± 28.0 82.9 ± 25.0 +7.8 (−2.3–18.1) 0.130
(% of energy) 52 ± 7 50 ± 7 51 ± 7 49 ± 8 −1.7 (−6.9–3.5) 0.512
Dietary fiber (g/day) 21.5 ± 7.8 22.3 ± 8.2 21.7 ± 7.5 25.7 ± 8.3 +3.2 (−0.4–6.9) 0.084
Calcium intake (mg/day) 652.8 ± 20.6 682.2 ± 282.9 688.3 ± 32.4 813.7 ± 346.7 +152.6 (14.7–290.5) 0.030b
Magnesium intake (mg/day) 235.2 ± 63.0 246.8 ± 78.4 235.7 ± 87.1 289.5 ± 96.3 +43.1 (4.1–82.0) 0.031b
Iron (mg) 9.8 ± 3.0 10.1 ± 3.4 9.8 ± 3.3 11.8 ± 3.6 +1.7 (0.2–3.3) 0.025b
Zinc (mg) 9.1 ± 2.8 8.8 ± 2.5 8.8 ± 3.3 10.7 ± 3.4 +2.0 (0.7–3.3) 0.003b
Folate (μcg) 282.7 ± 88.5 284.2 ± 91.3 265.8 ± 92.0 296.0 ± 114.7 +12.0 (−32.7–58.8) 0.573
Fruit intake (pieces/day) 1.6 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.3 +0.4 (−0.5–1.04) 0.078
Vegetable intake (g/day) 213 ± 108 204 ± 129 176 ± 102 283 ± 132 +73. 6 (12.5–134.7 ) 0.019b
  1. CI confidence interval. Missing for each groups, n = 6. Control, n = 45; intervention, n = 45
  2. aANCOVA, mean group differences adjusted for baseline intake of the outcome variable (pretest), prepregnancy age, BMI, education year, and gravidity
  3. bThere were significant differences between groups, p < 0.05