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Table 3 Bivariable associations between alcohol consumption and demo-social factors: odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)

From: Alcohol consumption among university students: a Sino-German comparison demonstrates a much lower consumption of alcohol in Chinese students

Variables OR (95 % CI)
Chinese German
“Less than once a week” vs. “Never”a “At least once a week” vs. “Never”a “Less than once a week” vs. “Never”a “At least once a week” vs. “Never”a “Problem drinking” vs. “No problem drinking”a
Female vs. maleb 0.86 (0.70–1.04) 1.07 (0.77–1.51) 1.21 (0.92–1.58) 0.41*** (0.32–0.53) 0.30*** (0.25–0.37)
Having a partner, yes vs. nob 1.63*** (1.31–2.01) 1.68** (1.17–2.41) 1.11 (0.86–1.44) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 0.76** (0.64–0.91)
Father’s education, high vs. lowb 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 3.12*** (2.13–4.56) 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 1.30* (1.02–1.66) 1.29** (1.08–1.54)
Subjective general health, good vs. poorb 0.76 (0.56–1.04) 0.73 (0.44–1.23) 1.40 (0.99–1.98) 1.50* (1.09–2.07) 0.78 (0.61–1.00)
Income, sufficient vs. insufficientb 0.67** (0.52–0.87) 0.61* (0.40–0.92) 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.77* (0.60–0.99) 0.90 (0.76–1.08)
Nutrition, important vs. unimportantb 0.71* (0.51–0.99) 0.42*** (0.26–0.68) 1.41 (0.85–2.34) 0.72 (0.46–1.12) 0.59*** (0.45–0.78)
Grade, important vs. unimportantb 0.74 (0.50–1.09) 0.48* (0.27–0.85) 1.44 (0.76–2.74) 1.16 (0.65–2.08) 0.54*** (0.36–0.81)
Perceived life quality, good vs. poorb 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 1.16 (0.82–1.64) 1.17 (0.91–1.51) 1.36* (1.07–1.72) 1.04 (0.87–1.23)
Physical activity, less than once a week vs. at least three times a weekb 0.84 (0.68–1.05) 0.85** (0.38–0.87) 0.73* (0.55–0.97) 0.58*** (0.45–0.76) 0.65*** (0.51–0.82)
Physical activity, 1–2 times a week vs. at least three times a weekb 0.90 (0.74–1.09) 0.68* (0.48–0.96) 1.14 (0.87–1.49) 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.70*** (0.57–0.85)
Age 1.14*** (1.08–1.19) 1.33*** (1.23–1.45) 0.97* (0.94–0.99) 0.96** (0.93–0.99) 1.01 (0.99–1.04)
Perceived stress scale scores 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 1.05** (1.02–1.09)
BMI 1.07*** (1,03–1.12) 1.15*** (1.09–1.23) 0.96* (0.92–0.99) 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 1.05*** (1.03–1.08)
  1. Significance of Wald test: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. aReference category of the dependent variables
  3. bReference category of the independent variables