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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers, infants, and their households in the study sample compared with singletons in the parent trial in rural Bangladesh, 2008–2009

From: A home calendar and recall method of last menstrual period for estimating gestational age in rural Bangladesh: a validation study

  Parent trial (n = 26,476) Substudy (n = 353) P
  Mean ± SD or % (n)
Maternal
 Age, years 22.8 ± 5.5 23.1 ± 5.1 0.18
 Height, cm 149.6 ± 5.2 149.1 ± 5.2 0.04
 BMI, kg/m2 19.3 ± 2.4 19.3 ± 2.4 0.61
 BMI <18.5 39.4 (10,369) 40.2 (142) 0.74
 MUAC, cm 23.5 ± 2.2 23.7 ± 2.2 0.11
 Parity 1.09 ± 1.22 1.05 ± 1.21 0.54
 Nulliparous 38.9 (10,297) 38.0 (134) 0.71
 Can read or write a Bangla letter 63.1 (16,688) 71.4 (252) <0.01
 Completed >6 years of school 40.9 (10,799) 48.7 (172) <0.01
Household
 Has electricity 21.8 (5757) 14.7 (52) <0.01
 Owns a mobile phone 37.9 (10,019) 35.1 (124) 0.29
 Owns a TV 17.4 (4610) 14.5 (51) 0.14
Infant
 Male 51.2 (13,033) 52.6 (170) 0.60
 Birth weight, kga 2.55 ± 0.41 2.62 ± 0.40 0.01
 Low birth weight (<2.5 kg)a 43.4 (8663) 38.9 (108) 0.13
 Small-for-gestational age (Alexander)b,c 63.5 (12,694) 68.4 (190) 0.10
 Small-for-gestational age (Intergrowth) b,c 51.8 (9376) 54.0 (141) 0.47
 Preterm (<37 weeks gestation)b 19.6 (4991) 9.9 (32) <0.01
  1. a n = 19,982 (parent trial) and n = 278 (substudy) for birth weight and LBW including all infants with weight taken ≤72 h from delivery
  2. bGestational age estimated by date of the last menstrual period to allow comparison between parent trial (without ultrasound) and substudy: preterm n = 25,474 (parent), n = 323 (substudy)
  3. cSGA is <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age and infant sex by the Alexander et al. reference [25] or the international intergrowth standards [17]. SGA: n = 18,119 (parent trial), n = 261 (substudy) including all infants with weight taken ≤72 h from delivery