Skip to main content

Table 5 Relative risk ratios showing influence on modern contraceptive use with traditional method as base outcome

From: Factors influencing contraceptive use and non-use among women of advanced reproductive age in Nigeria

Characteristic predicting modern contraceptive use Model 1 (demographic) LR χ 2 (22) = 2283.0; p < 0.001 Model 2 (socio-economic) LR χ 2 (24) =3148.4; p < 0.001 Model 3 (socio-demographic) LR χ 2 (46) = 4285.8; p < 0.001 Model 4 (full) LR χ 2 (58) 4730.8; p < 0.001
RRR p > |z| 95% CI RRR p > |z| 95% CI RRR p > |z| 95% CI RRR p > |z| 95% CI
Maternal age
 35–39 years (ref)    
 40–44 years 0.891 0.204 0.745 to 1.065     0.895 0.231 0.747 to 1.073 0.883 0.182 0.736 to 1.060
 45–49 years 1.061 0.618 0.841 to 1.338     1.117 0.355 0.883 to 1.413 1.107 0.402 0.873 to 1.403
Parity
 Low (ref)    
 Multiparity 0.800 0.230 0.555 to 1.152     0.691 0.053 0.475 to 1.005 0.676 0.042 0.464 to 0.985
 Grand multiparity 0.791 0.229 0.539 to 1.159     0.629 0.026 0.419 to 0.946 0.622 0.024 0.413 to 0.938
Child mortality experience
 Ever experienced (ref)    
 Never experienced 1.028 0.766 0.858 1.232     1.014 0.878 0.844 1.218 1.030 0.751 0.857 1.238
Age at first birth
 14 years or less (ref)    
 15–19 years 0.894 0.566 0.609 to 1.311     0.915 0.654 0.621 to 1.349 0.917 0.664 0.621 to 1.353
 20–24 years 0.776 0.192 0.530 to 1.136     0.855 0.429 0.580 to 1.260 0.860 0.449 0.583 to 1.270
 25 years or older 0.575 0.006 0.386 to 0.856     0.663 0.047 0.442 to 0.993 0.668 0.052 0.444 to 1.004
Fertility desire
 Wants more children (ref)    
 Want no more children 0.677 <0.001 0.552 to 0.830     0.619 <0.001 0.500 to 0.766 0.611 <0.001 0.493 to 0.757
 Undecided 1.367 0.428 0.631 to 2.965     1.053 0.898 0.477 to 2.326 1.061 0.884 0.479 to 2.348
Ideal family size
 Small (ref)    
 Large 0.989 0.909 0.818 to 1.196     0.937 0.523 0.767 to 1.144 0.948 0.603 0.775 to 1.159
Maternal education
 None (ref)    
 Primary     2.321 <0.001 1.718 to 3.137 2.232 <0.001 1.652 to 3.015 1.916 <0.001 1.397 to 2.626
 Secondary     2.032 <0.001 1.483 to 2.783 1.982 <0.001 1.445 to 2.718 1.637 0.004 1.173 to 2.285
 Higher     1.610 0.007 1.138 to 2.280 1.587 0.011 1.112 to 2.263 1.192 0.377 0.807 to 1.759
Place of residence
 Urban (ref)    
 Rural     1.048 0.623 0.869 to 1.264 1.032 0.748 0.853 to 1.248 1.018 0.856 0.840 to 1.233
Household wealth index
 Poorest (ref)    
 Poorer     1.580 0.066 0.971 to 2.572 1.613 0.055 0.989 to 2.631 1.550 0.081 0.947 to 2.534
 Middle     1.823 0.012 1.139 to 2.916 1.771 0.017 1.106 to 2.834 1.632 0.043 1.016 to 2.622
 Richer     1.973 0.005 1.222 to 3.185 1.883 0.010 1.166 to 3.043 1.722 0.027 1.062 to 2.791
 Richest     2.110 0.003 1.280 to 3.476 1.954 0.009 1.183 to 3.229 1.726 0.035 1.038 to 2.871
Employment status
 Not working (ref)    
 Working     1.036 0.812 0.775 to 1.389 1.020 0.897 0.759 to 1.370 0.967 0.823 0.718 to 1.300
Media exposure
 None (ref)    
 Low     0.912 0.583 0.656 to 1.267 0.937 0.699 0.673 to 1.304 0.897 0.519 0.645 to 1.248
 Moderate     0.973 0.860 0.723 to 1.311 0.986 0.929 0.731 to 1.331 0.936 0.663 0.694 to 1.261
Geographic region
 Northern (ref)    
 Southern     1.237 <0.001 1.190 to 1.805 1.241 <0.001 1.193 to 1.781 1.250 <0.001 1.200 to 1.818
Remarriage
 Married once (ref)          
 Remarried           1.246 0.112 0.950 to 1.635
Paternal education
 None (ref)          
 Primary           0.999 0.994 0.718 to 1.389
 Secondary           1.023 0.896 0.728 to 1.436
 Higher           1.281 0.189 0.885 to 1.854
Women autonomy
 No autonomy (ref)          
 Autonomy           1.201 0.098 0.967 to 1.492
  1. p value greater than 0.05 indicate not significant
  2. ref reference category