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Table 1 Sex-specific demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factor prevalence in adolescents of a Shantytown in Lima, Peru

From: High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Peruvian adolescents living in a peri-urban shantytown: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total Male Female p value
  N %, (95% CI) N %, (95% CI) N %, (95% CI)  
Demographics
Gender 275   120 43.6, (37.9, 49.6) 155 56.4, (50.4, 62.2)  
Age (years) 275 (μ, SD) 14, 1 120 14, 1 155 14, 1  
2015 school grade 275   120   155   
 First 74 26.9, (22.0, 32.5) 37 30.8, (23.1, 39.8) 37 23.9, (17.8, 31.3)  
 Second 73 26.5, (21.6, 32.1) 27 22.5, (15.8, 31.0) 46 29.7, (23.0, 37.4)  
 Third 62 22.5, (18.0, 27.9) 32 26.7, (19.4, 35.4) 30 19.4, (13.8, 26.4)  
 Fourth 66 24.0, (19.3, 29.4) 24 20.0, (13.7, 28.2) 42 27.1, (20.6, 34.7)  
Household population 269 (μ, SD) 5, 2 116 5, 3 153 5, 2  
Health visit 262 38.2, (32.5, 44.2) 111 31.5, (23.5, 40.9) 151 43.0, (35.3, 51.1)  
Family history (FH)a 273   118   155   
 Diabetes (DM)   16.9, (12.8, 21.8)   15.3, (9.8, 23.1)   18.1, (12.7, 25.0)  
 Hypertension (HTN)   13.6, (10.0, 18.2)   13.6, (8.4, 21.1)   13.6, (9.0, 20.0)  
 High cholesterol   23.2, (18.5, 28.6)   22.9, (16.1, 31.5)   23.4 (17.3, 30.8)  
 Heart disease   9.9, (6.9, 14.1)   7.6, (4.0, 14.1)   11.6 (7.4, 17.8)  
Clinical risk factors
Nutritional statusb 266   115   151   0.78
 Normal weight   72.2, (66.5, 77.3)   71.3, (62.2, 78.9)   72.9, (65.1, 79.4)  
 Overweight, obese   27.8, (22.7, 33.5)   28.7, (21.1, 37.8)   27.2, (20.6, 34.9)  
Abdominal obesityc 266 24.8, (20.0, 30.4) 115 26.1, (18.8, 35.0) 151 23.8, (17.7, 31.4) 0.67
Hypertensiond 266   115   151   0.002
 Normal BP   72.2, (66.5, 77.3)   62.6, (53.3, 71.1)   79.5, (72.2, 85.2)  
 Abnormal BP   27.8, (22.7, 33.6)   37.4, (28.9, 46.7)   20.5, (14.8, 27.8)  
Anemia (mild, mod)c 265 28.7, (23.5, 34.5) 114 23.7, (16.7, 32.5) 151 32.5, (25.4, 40.4) 0.12
Total Cholesterolf 266   115   151   0.57
 Normal   54.5, (48.5, 60.4)   56.5, (47.2, 65.4)   53.0, (44.9, 60.9)  
 Abnormal   45.5, (39.6, 51.6)   43.5, (34.6, 52.8)   47.0, (39.1, 55.1)  
FBGg 183   70   113   0.02
 Normal   29.0, (22.8, 36.0)   22.9, (14.3, 34.4)   32.7, (24.6, 42.0)  
 Abnormal   71.0, (64.0, 77.2)   77.1, (65.6, 85.7)   67.3, (58.0, 75.4)  
Behavioral risk factors
Physical activityh 265 %, (95% CI) 114 %, (95% CI) 151 %, (95% CI) 0.002
 Adequate   9.4, (6.4, 13.6)   15.8, (10.1, 23.8)   4.6, (2.2, 9.5)  
 Inadequate   90.6, (86.4, 93.6)   84.2, (76.2, 89.9)   95.4, (90.5, 97.8)  
Sedentary behavior 265 (μ, SD)   (μ, SD)   (μ, SD)  
 Television (hours/day)   3.4, 3.6   3.1, 4.2   3.4, 2.9  
 Cell phone (hours/day)   3.9, 5.5   3.6, 5.3   3.1, 4.2  
 Internet (hours/day)   2.1, 4.1   2.4, 3.8   2.2, 4.6  
Dietaryi 274 %, (95% CI) 119 %, (95% CI) 155 %, (95% CI)  
 Ideal fruit intake   42.3, (36.6, 48.3)   37.0, (28.7, 46.1)   53.6, (45.6, 61.3) 0.12
 Poor fruit intake   57.7, (51.7, 63.4)   63.0, (53.9, 71.3)   46.5, (38.7, 54.4)  
 Ideal veg. intake   32.1, (26.8, 37.9)   33.6, (25.6,4 2.7)   31.0, (61.2, 75.9) 0.64
 Poor veg. intake   67.9 (62.1, 73.2)   66.4, (57.3, 74.4)   69.0, (61.2, 75.9)  
 Frequent salt use 273 11.4, (8.1, 15.7) 118 8.5, (4.6, 15.2) 155 13.6, (9.0, 20.0) 0.19
Substance usej   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)  
 Tobacco Use 257 16.3, (12.3, 21.4) 112 18.8, (12.5, 27.2) 145 14.5, (9.6, 21.3) 0.36
 FH tobacco use 246 14.2, (10.4, 19.2) 107 13.1, (7.8, 21.0) 139 15.1, (10.0, 22.2) 0.65
 Alcohol use 247 49.4, (43.2, 55.7) 110 50.0, (40.6, 59.4) 137 48.9, (40.5, 57.3) 0.86
 FH alcohol abuse 245 17.1, (12.9, 22.4) 108 17.6, (11.4, 26.1) 137 16.8, (11.4, 24.1) 0.87
 Marijuana use 253 4.3, (2.4, 7.7) 106 4.7, (1.9, 11.0) 147 4.1,(1.8, 8.9) 0.81
Mental healthk   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)  
 Depression 246 55.3, (49.0, 61.4) 106 40.6, (31.5, 50.3) 140 66.4, (58.1, 73.8) <0.0001
 Anhedonia 242 60.3, (54.0, 66.2) 100 50.0, (40.2, 59.8) 142 67.6, (59.4, 74.9) 0.006
 FH mental illness 227 16.7, (12.4, 22.2) 99 8.1, (4.0, 15.5) 128 23.4, (16.8, 31.7) 0.002
 Self-harm 248 28.2, (22.9, 34.2) 108 15.7, (9.9, 24.0) 140 37.9, (30.1, 46.3) <0.0001
Violencel   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)   %, (95% CI)  
 Physical, home 253 28.9, (23.6, 34.8) 113 25.7, (18.4, 34.6) 140 31.4, (24.2, 39.7) 0.31
 Physical, school 262 7.6, (5.0, 11.6) 115 10.4, (6.0, 17.6) 147 5.4, (2.7, 10.6) 0.13
 Sexual 260 2.7, (1.3, 5.6) 113 0.9, (0.1, 6.2) 147 4.1, (1.8, 8.9) 0.11
  1. aMajority of participants denied FH knowledge: 35.9% for DM, 54.6% for HTN, 39.3% for cholesterol, and 26.0% for heart disease answered “don’t know”
  2. bAge and gender-specific percentiles used WHO guidelines for adolescents [14] to define: “Normal weight” as 5 < BMI% > 85, and “Abnormal weight” as 85 < BMI% > 95 (overweight) and BMI% > 95 (obese)
  3. cAbdominal obesity defined as participants with “high” and “very high” future risk secondary to waist circumference as per national cut-offs from the Peruvian NIH and Ministry of Health [29]
  4. dPeruvian NIH and Ministry of Health [29] defined “No anemia” as >12 g/dL for females and >13 g/dL for males, and “Anemia” as <11 g/dL for both genders
  5. eAge, gender, and height-specific percentiles used NIH [50] guidelines for adolescents to define: “Normal BP” as 5 < BP% > 85, “Abnormal BP” as 85 < BP% > 95 (prehypertension), and BP% > 95 (hypertension I)
  6. fAHA cardiovascular ideals for adolescents [2] defined cholesterol as “Normal” if <170 mg/dL and “Abnormal” if >170 mg/dL. POC machine reading of “lo” included as “normal”
  7. gAHA cardiovascular ideal for adolescents [2] defined fasting blood glucose (FBG) as “Normal” if <100 mg/dL and “Abnormal” if >100 mg/dL. Only participants in fasting state included; 31% of 266 were excluded due to “non-fasting” status
  8. h“Adequate” physical activity determined by daily intense physical activity and “Inadequate” as less than daily physical activity as per adolescent recommendations from AHA cardiovascular ideal [2], CDC YRBSS [11], and CDC NHANES [11, 30]
  9. iAs per AHA cardiovascular ideal [2], CDC YRBSS [11]; CDC NHANES [11, 30] adolescent recommendations, “Ideal” fruit and vegetable intake determined by daily intake (7 days/week) and “Poor” as less than daily; “Frequent salt intake” determined by endorsement of “often or always” putting condiments and salt on food at meals
  10. jSubstance use determined by endorsed lifetime use (one or more) with questions based on surveys from: Peruvian NIH and Ministry of Health [29], CDC Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (YRBSS), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) [11, 30,31,32,33]
  11. kRates of depression and anhedonia in the “last 2 weeks” defined by Spanish-language PHQ-2 [33]
  12. lPhysi cal and sexual violence are based on questions from the Spanish-language Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE ) questionnaire [31]