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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects

From: Obesity indices predict hypertension among indigenous adults in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia

Characteristics Total (N = 482) Men (n = 223) Women (n = 259) p value†
n (%) Mean [95% CI] n (%) Mean [95% CI] n (%) Mean [95% CI]
Sub-tribe        0.965
 Jah Hut 297 (61.6)   136 (61.0)   161 (62.2)   
 Temuan 132 (27.4)   62 (27.8)   70 (27.0)   
 Che Wong 53 (11.0)   25 (11.2)   28 (10.8)   
Age (years)   35.4 [34.3, 36.5]   37.5 [35.8, 39.1]   33.6 [32.2, 35.1] <0.01
 18–29 181 (37.5)   72 (32.3)   109 (42.1)   
 30–39 123 (25.5)   57 (25.6)   66 (25.5)   
 40–49 104 (21.6)   49 (22.0)   55 (21.2)   
 ≥50 74 (15.4)   45 (20.1)   29 (11.2)   
Drinker 109 (22.6)   101 (45.3)   8 (3.1)   <0.001
Smoker 257 (53.3)   160 (71.7)   97 (37.5)   <0.001
Anthropometric measures        
 Weight (kg)   55.6 [54.5, 56.7]   58.4 [57.1, 59.7]   53.2 [51.5, 54.9] <0.001
 Height (cm)a   154.0 [153.3, 154.6]   159.1 [158.4, 159.9]   149.5 [148.8, 150.3] <0.001
  Short stature 276 (57.3)   126 (56.5)   150 (57.9)   
  Normal height 206 (42.7)   97 (43.5)   109 (42.1)   
 Hip circumference (cm)   92.0 [91.0, 93.0]   90.9 [90.7, 92.2]   93.0 [91.5, 94.5] <0.05
Obesity indices        
 Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2)b   23.41 [22.97, 23.83]   23.03 [22.57, 23.48]   23.73 [23.03, 24.43] 0.098
  Underweight 49 (10.2)   12 (5.4)   37 (14.2)   
  Normal 288 (59.8)   159 (71.3)   129 (49.8)   
  Overweight 106 (22.0)   45 (20.2)   61 (23.6)   
  Obese 39 (8.0)   7 (3.1)   32 (12.4)   
 Waist circumference (WC) (cm)c   76.6 [75.6, 76.7]   76.4 [75.0, 77.7]   76.9 [75.3, 78.4] 0.612
  Normal 374 (77.6)   201 (90.1)   173 (66.8)   
  At risk 108 (22.4)   22 (9.9)   86 (33.2)   
 Waist-height ratio (WHtR)d   0.50 [0.49, 0.51]   0.48 [0.47, 0.49]   0.51 [0.50, 0.52] <0.001
  Normal 286 (59.3)   152 (68.2)   134 (51.7)   
  At risk 196 (40.7)   71 (31.8)   125 (48.3)   
 Waist-hip ratio (WHR)e   0.83 [0.83, 0.84]   0.84 [0.83, 0.85]   0.82 [0.81, 0.84] 0.082
  Normal 349 (72.4)   184 (82.5)   165 (63.7)   
  At risk 133 (27.6)   39 (17.5)   94 (36.3)   
Clinical parameters        <0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)   121 [120, 123]   126 [124, 129]   117 [115, 119] <0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)   81 [80, 82]   84 [82, 85]   80 [78, 81]  
Hypertension 123 (25.5)   70 (31.4)   53 (20.5)   <0.01
  1. †Comparison between men and women
  2. aShort stature (men ≤160 cm; women ≤150 cm); normal height (men >160 cm; women >150 cm)
  3. bUnderweight (BMI <18.50 kg/m2); normal (BMI 18.50–24.99 kg/m2); overweight (BMI 25.00–29. 99 kg/m2); obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)
  4. cNormal (men <90 cm; women: <80 cm); at risk (men ≥90 cm; women ≥80 cm)
  5. dNormal (<0.50); at risk (≥0.50)
  6. eNormal (men <0.9; women <0.85); at risk (men ≥0.9; women ≥0.85)