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Table 6 Determinants of out-of-pocket expenditure and expenditure on medicine for seeking care for under-five children

From: Out-of-pocket expenditure for seeking health care for sick children younger than 5 years of age in Bangladesh: findings from cross-sectional surveys, 2009 and 2012

  Total OPE1 Expenditure on medicine1
  Coefficient P value Coefficient P value
Illness type
 Non-priority2 Ref   Ref  
 Priority3 0.20 < 0.000 0.12 < 0.000
Provider type
 Untrained Ref   Ref  
 Public trained 0.90 < 0.000 0.48 < 0.000
 Private trained 1.77 < 0.000 0.70 < 0.000
 Non-government organization − 0.24 0.157 − 0.30 0.061
Mother’s education
 No education Ref   Ref  
 Primary incomplete (1–4 years) − 0.01 0.719 0.01 0.806
 Primary complete (5 years) 0.05 0.218 0.03 0.391
 Secondary incomplete (6–9 years) 0.19 < 0.000 0.06 0.101
 Secondary complete or higher (10+ years) 0.19 < 0.05 0.16 < 0.05
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest Ref   Ref  
 Second − 0.01 0.817 0.01 0.810
 Middle − 0.05 0.215 − 0.02 0.592
 Fourth − 0.04 0.327 0.01 0.801
 Highest − 0.08 0.079 − 0.02 0.678
Location of household
 Plain land Ref   Ref  
 Hard-to-reach areas 0.20 < 0.000 0.10 < 0.001
Increase of expenditure from 2009 to 2012
 2009 Ref   Ref  
 2012 0.85 < 0.000 0.22 < 0.000
Area
 Comparison Ref   Ref  
 Intervention 0.06 0.090 0.01 0.854
Interaction of area and time − 0.06 0.304 0.09 0.091
  1. 1The 2009 and 2012 expenditure have been combined
  2. 2Non-priority illness: children who had a cough or cold, acute or chronic ear infection, diarrhea with no dehydration, anemia, or fever without malaria
  3. 3Priority illness: children who had pneumonia, diarrhea with dehydration, dysentery, malaria, or measles