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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population by sex

From: Association of dietary patterns with diabetes complications among type 2 diabetes patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine: a cross sectional study

Variables T2DM (n = 1200) Male (n = 482) Female (n = 718) P Value
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Age (years) Mean ± SD 49.74 ± 11 49.4 ± 10.6 49.9 ± 11.3 0.238
Marital status Married 1160 (96.6) 472 (40.7) 688 (59.3) 0.031
Unmarried 40 (3.3) 10 (25.0) 30 (75.0)
Educational level Low education 535 (44.5) 175 (32.7) 360 (67.3) 0.001
High education 665 (55.4) 307 (46.2) 358 (53.8)
Family size Less than five 429 (51.4) 160 (37.3) 269 (62.7) 0.073
Five or more 771 (64.2) 322 (41.8) 449 (58.2)
Monthly income ≤ 2000 (NIS) 1054 (87.8) 392 (37.2) 662 (62.8) 0.001
> 2000 (NIS) 146 (12.1) 90 (61.6) 56 (38.4)
Diabetes duration (years) Less than five 316 (26.3) 131 (27.2) 185 (25.8) 0.004
Five to ten 434 (36.1) 196 (40.7) 238 (33.1)
More than ten 450 (37.5) 155 (32.1) 295 (41.1)
Use diabetes medications Yes 1200 (100) 482 (40.2) 718 (59.8)
Type of diabetes medications used Diabetes pills 491 (40.9) 215 (43.8) 276 (56.2) 0.020
Insulin injections 628 (52.3) 244 (38.9) 384 (61.1)
Pills & injections 81 (6.75) 23 (28.4) 58 (71.6)
Received diabetes care instructions Yes 574 (47.8) 237 (41.3) 337 (58.7) 0.242
No 626 (52.1) 245 (39.1) 381 (60.9)
History of smoking Yes 162 (13.5) 160 (98.8) 2 (1.2) 0.001
No 1038 (86.5) 322 (31.0) 716 (69.0)
History of alcohol intake No 1200 (100) 482 (40.2) 718 (59.8)
Physical activity (Total MET) Mean ± SD 1430.1 ± 1519 1753.2 ± 1663 1213.2 ± 1373 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) Mean ± SD 30.22 ± 6.2 28.32 ± 5.1 31.5 ± 6.6 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) Mean ± SD 104.7 ± 16.9 101.2 ± 14.6 107.1 ± 18 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 169.6 ± 29.1 168.5 ± 27.5 170.3 ± 30.1 0.046
Triglycerides level (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 160.4 ± 52.9 154.2 ± 50.0 164.6 ± 54.4 0.006
HDL-cholesterol level (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 45.1 ± 8.2 42.4 ± 6.3 46.9 ± 8.9 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as means ± SD for continuous variables and as percentage for categorical variables. The differences between means were tested by using independent sample t test. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of different categorical variable. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. SD, stander deviation