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Table 2 Descriptions of strategies utilized promote and support EBF, grouped by intensity of male engagement strategy and region

From: Engaging men to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding: a descriptive review of 28 projects in 20 low- and middle-income countries from 2003 to 2013

NGO, country Male engagement strategy Other strategies
High intensity strategies to engage men in EBF promotion or support
Sub-Saharan Africa  
ERD, Uganda Community-based organizations (CBOs) such as literacy groups and farmers groups formed and discussed maternal and child health and nutrition topicsa; household visits to promote behavior change communication messages, including EBFb Village health teams provided breastfeeding advice and information
FH, Mozambique* Care Group model, with the majority of community-selected promotersb male (85%)  
GOAL, Ethiopia* Community-level promotion of Community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (CIMCI) and Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCH/N); conducted home visits using Care Group Modela  
HealthRight, Kenya* Monthly meetings held with male dominated CBOs and Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) for health topic discussions and dissemination of behavior change communication (BCC) materials with community health workers (CHWs)a; home visits conducted by CHW for maternal and newborn health education entire familyb Participated in week-long national promotion campaigns
HKI, Nigerc* Breastfeeding Support Groups that included men and womenb; created community-based growth promotion teams including at least 1 man to disseminate Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) messages (including EBF) at community eventsb ENA committees also promoted EBF
MCDI, Beninc* Targeted EBF behavior change information, education communication (IEC) materials, and radio spot messages towards fathers as household decision-makersb; men participated in community song festivals and radio contests with key breastfeeding messagesb BCC and IEC materials for mothers, including radio spots, integrating matrons and mothers-in-law in breastfeeding promotion, VISA (leader) mothers and CHWs promoted messages and were trusted by the community
MTI, Liberiac* Household Health Promoters provided home visits and community education sessionsb Coordinated support for infant and young child feeding at community and facility levels.
MTI, Uganda* Community-identified men trained as members of Village Health Teams to deliver health messages through community mobilization activities and IEC materials for project intervention areasb; men trained as peer educators to deliver weekly early child development modules to parentsb  
SC, Malawic* Village Health Committees mobilized “core groups” of women and men to identify barriers to recommended practices and implement local activities related to newborn healthb; trained grandparents, including grandfathers, to give counseling and deliver health education messages on key maternal and newborn health topics, including essential newborn careb Home visits to pregnant and postpartum women
WR, Mozambique* Formed Care Groups with Pastors/Traditional Healers to share health messages with the communitya  
South and Central Asia  
AKF, Indiac* Health education in CBO meetings (e.g., Farmers Groups)a  
HW, India* Trained Community Health Teams provided individual family or small group counseling from for fathers, mothers, pregnant women, etc.b; engaged religious leaders to communicate healthy behavior messages  
MC, Tajikistan* Trained Community Health Educators and Village Development Committees (composed of local men and women) worked at community level by focusing behavior change and nutrition messaging towards household decision-makers (men and mothers-in-law)b Mothers’ Groups/Breastfeeding Support Groups; support for district maternity houses to gain or renew Baby-Friendly status
Project HOPE, Uzbekistanc* Trained community leaders to deliver health messages (including EBF) to families during household visits and community eventsb; created New Parents’ Schools in community health centers to educate expectant parents on health topics such as breastfeedingb Assisted hospitals to gain Baby-Friendly certification; breastfeeding support groups at maternity houses; participation in annual Breastfeeding Week activities; monitoring Baby-Friendly policy adherence at maternity houses; dissemination of breastfeeding educational materials
WR, Bangladesh* Used community based organization to form primary groups of men, including husbands and community leaders, to promote key family practices critical for child health and nutritiona  
WV, Afghanistan* Formed community-level committees (shuras) to mobilize communities and health shura members to communicate messages from Home-based Life Saving Skills (HBLSS)b; conducted timed and targeted counseling home visits for pregnant women, other caregivers, and household decision-makersb; held community meetings for promoting HBLSS messagesb Promoted and supported Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; women peer groups
Southeast Asia  
PCI, Indonesia Community outreach and counseling events for parents and caregiversb  
Latin American and the Caribbean  
CRS, Nicaraguac* Behavior Change Agents using religious gatherings and sporting events to promote BCC strategies; specific program Engaging Men to Improve Care-Seeking; TBA home visits with women and partner to promote health topics, including EBFb Strengthening health workers’ and volunteers’ capacities related to maternal and newborn nutrition
FG, Peru* Community Health Agent home visits geared towards familiesb; general community assemblies discussing health issues of women and childrenb Integrated with other health messages, e.g., EBF to prevent pneumonia; trained health facility staff and community health agents
HHF, Haiti Organization of Fathers’ Groups for health education activitiesa; community meetings and demonstrationsb  
Low-intensity strategies to engage men in EBF promotion or support
Sub-Saharan Africa  
Care, Sierra Leonec* Formed community health clubs, with concerted effort to include men, and promoted health messages at meetingsb Trained community-based growth promoters to promote EBF; pregnant women’s support groups and multisectoral activities promoted nutrition behaviors
Curamericas, Liberiac* Behavior change communication activities in communities with messages targeted at both gendersb  
HP, Ugandac Conducted community BCC sessions promoting breastfeedingb Counseled mothers on breastfeeding; behavior change communication activities with men
RI, Niger* Conducted meetings with husbands and village committees to promote behavior change communication messages, which include breastfeedinga Promoted health behaviors with women’s health groups
WI, Tanzania* Embedded EBF messages into other BCC message health topic areas, including diarrhea and pneumonia, at community eventsb  
South and Central Asia  
Care, Nepalc Behavior change communication strategy targeted husbands, including radio, TV and other IEC materials disseminated at community eventsb Trained Female Community Health Volunteers to educate and counsel mothers
WV, Indiac* Held community meetings to improve men’s engagement in family planning (especially LAM) and maternal and child nutrition Timed counseling sessions with mothers; CHW training
Latin American and the Caribbean  
AME-Sada, Haiti* Organized community-wide rally posts to educate community, including fathers, in-laws, and grandmothers, to communicate specific behavior change messages, including EBFb Trained CHWs, who made home visits; partnered with COZAM (breastfeeding promotion group); behavior change messages communicated through several media, including breastfeeding clubs and support groups
  1. *Statistically significant (a = 0.05) difference in proportions (n = 23)
  2. aEngaged women in similar but separate activities as men for EBF promotion and support
  3. bEngaged women alongside men in same activities for EBF promotion and support
  4. cConducted formative research to inform strategies to engage men in EBF promotion and support; includes qualitative methods such as focus group discussion, barrier analysis, doer/nondoer analysis, or other surveys