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Table 4 Factors associated with utilization of inpatient health services

From: The association between health insurance status and utilization of health services in rural Northern Ghana: evidence from the introduction of the National Health Insurance Scheme

Variable   Inpatient health services
Categories % Utilized Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Health insurance Insured 1.4 3.49 (2.8–4.4) 2.78 (2.2–3.6)b
Uninsured 0.4 1 1
Age 0–4 1.7 1.98 (1.5–2.6) 1.27 (0.9–1.9)
5–17 0.5 0.57 (0.4–0.7) 0.66 (0.5–0.9)
18–34 0.9 1 1
35–59 1.4 1.63 (1.3–2.0) 1.53 (1.2–1.9)b
60–69 1.4 1.65 (1.2–2.3) 1.41 (0.9–2.1)
70+ (aged) 1.6 1.88 (1.3–2.7) 1.65 (1.1–2.5)b
Gender Male 0.9 1 1
Female 1.2 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.10 (0.9–1.3)
Educational level No education 1.1 0.61 (0.4–0.9) 1.03 (0.7–1.6)
Primary 0.5 0.29 (0.2–0.4) 0.84 (0.5–1.3)
Secondary 1.2 0.66 (0.4–0.9) 1.25 (0.8–1.9)
Tertiary 1.9 1 1
Below school going agea 1.4 0.73 (0.5–1.1) 1.47 (0.9–2.5)
Religion Traditional & other 0.7 0.49 (0.4–0.7) NS
Christianity 1.3 0.87 (0.6–1.2) NS
Islam 1.4 1 NS
Ethnicity Kasem 1.2 1 1
Nankam 0.8 0.66 (0.6–0.8) 0.95 (0.8–1.2)
Buli 1.6 1.41 (0.9–2.2) 1.71 (1.1–2.7)b
Other 2.4 2.12 (1.4–3.1) 1.17 (0.8–1.8)
Location Rural 0.9 1 1
Urban 2.2 2.62 (2.2–3.1) 1.32 (1.0–1.7)
Household size 1 member 2.4 2.7 (1.9–3.9) 1.55 (1.0–1.5)
2–4 members 1.4 1.62 (1.4–1.9) 1.27 (1.0–1.5)
5+ members 0.9 1 1
Socio-economic status Poorest 0.7 1 1
Poorer 0.8 1.14 (0.9–1.5) 1.10 (0.8–1.5)
Poor 0.8 1.12 (0.8–1.5) 1.10 (0.8–1.5)
Less poor 1.2 1.73 (1.3–2.3) 1.48 (1.1–1.9)b
Least poor 2.3 3.40 (2.6–4.4) 2.10 (1.5–2.9)b
Recent illness or injury Yes 0.8 8.23 (6.9–9.9) 5.72 (4.6–7.1)b
No 6.0 1 1
Self-assessed health status Poor or very poor 4.9 5.43 (4.2–6.9) 2.52 (1.9–3.4)b
Good or very good 0.9 1 1
Don’t know 0.7 0.77 (0.32–1.9) 0.81 (0.3–2.0)
Chronic medication Yes 8.8 10.27 (7.9–13.4) 3.48 (2.5–4.8)b
No 0.9 1 1
Don’t Know 1.7 1.79 (0.4–7.2) 1.19 (0.3–5.0)
  1. The reference group for the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) is indicated by one
  2. NS not significant in both bivariate and multivariate analyses
  3. aRepresenting infants who have not yet attained school going age in order to be in school
  4. bSignificant in multivariate analyses