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Table 3 Bivariate analysis showing factors associated with central obesity

From: Central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

Variables CO (WC) Not CO p value CO (WHR) Not CO p value CO (WHTR) Not CO p value
Sex
 Male 114 (35.5) 207 (64.5) < 0.001 166 (51.7) 155 (48.3) 0.005 172 (53.6) 149 (46.4) < 0.001
 Female 549 (81.3) 126 (18.7)   409 (60.7) 265 (38.3)   539 (79.9) 136 (20.1)  
Educational level
 No formal schooling 79 (54.1) 67 (45.9) 0.007 87 (59.6) 59 (40.4) 0.251 93 (63.7) 53 (36.3) 0.144
 Grades 1 to 7 104 (67.1) 51 (32.9)   100 (64.5) 55 (35.5)   115 (74.2) 40 (25.8)  
 Grades 8 to 12 399 (68.8) 181 (31.2)   323 (55.8) 256 (44.2)   422 (72.8) 158 (27.2)  
 Tertiary 81 (70.4) 34 (29.6)   65 (56.5) 50 (43.5)   81 (70.4) 34 (29.6)  
Smoking
 Yes 51 (34.0) 99 (66.0) < 0.001 71 (47.3) 79 (52.7) 0.003 66 (56.0) 84 (56.0) < 0.001
 No 612 (72.3) 234 (27.7)   504 (59.6) 341 (40.4)   645 (76.2) 201 (23.8)  
Alcohol use
 Yes 171 (53.8) 147 (46.2) < 0.001 159 (50.0) 159 (50.0) < 0.001 195 (61.3) 123 (38.7) < 0.001
 No 486 (72.8) 182 (27.2)   411 (61.6) 256 (38.4)   509 (76.2) 159 (23.8)  
Hypertension
 Yes 363 (74.1) 127 (25.9) < 0.001 332 (67.9) 157 (32.1) < 0.001 396 (80.8) 94 (19.2) < 0.001
 No 300 (59.3) 206 (40.7)   243 (48.0) 263 (52.0)   315 (62.3) 191 (37.7)  
Diabetes
 Yes 193 (79.4) 50 (20.6) < 0.001 179 (74.0) 63 (26.0) < 0.001 209 (86.0) 34 (14.0) < 0.001
 No 470 (62.4) 283 (37.6)   396 (52.6) 357 (47.4)   502 (66.7) 251 (33.3)  
Physical activity
 Yes 305 (68.2) 142 (31.8) 0.174 184 (41.3) 236 (43.0) 0.314 318 (71.1) 129 (28.9) 0.466
 No 358 (65.2) 191 (34.8)   262 (58.7) 313 (57.0)   393 (71.6) 156 (28.4)  
Marital status
 Never married 386 (60.8) 249 (39.2) < 0.001 312 (49.2) 322 (50.8) < 0.001 411 (64.7) 224 (35.3) < 0.001
 Ever married 250 (76.2) 78 (23.8)   239 (72.9) 89 (27.1)   271 (82.6) 57 (17.4)  
Income categories
 ≤ R2000 94 (61.8) 58 (38.2) 0.011 90 (59.2) 62 (40.8) 0.200 106 (69.7) 46 (30.3) 0.060
 2001–4999 268 (75.1) 89 (24.9)   233 (65.3) 124 (34.7)   282 (79.0) 75 (21.0)  
 5000 and above 53 (70.7) 22 (29.3)   42 (56.0) 33 (44.0)   60 (80.0) 15 (20.0)  
Age
 < 35 years 222 (57.7) 164(42.3) < 0.00 159 (41.4) 225 (58.6) < 0.001 233 (69.5) 152 (39.5) < 0.001
 35 and above 441 (72.2) 170(27.8)   416 (68.1) 195 (31.9)   478 (78.2) 133 (21.8)  
Employment status
 Government employee 46 (73.0) 17 (27.0) < 0.001 35 (55.6) 28 (44.4) < 0.001 52 (82.5) 11 (17.5) < 0.001
 Non-government employee 142 (61.5) 89 (38.5)   136 (58.9) 95 (41.1)   158 (68.4) 73 (31.6)  
 Self-employed 37 (59.7) 25 (40.3)   35 (56.5) 27 (43.5)   39 (61.9) 23 (37.1)  
 Student 48 (48.5) 51 (51.5)   27 (27.3) 72 (72.7)   48 (48.5) 51 (51.5)  
 Unemployed 340 (71.7) 134 (28.3)   294 (62.2) 179 (37.8)   360 (75.9) 114 (24.1)  
Retired 49 (74.2) 17 (25.8)   47 (71.2) 19 (28.8)   53 (80.3) 13 (19.7)  
Comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes)
 Yes 217 (99.5) 1 (0.5) < 0.001 178 (82.0) 39 (18.0) < 0.001 216 (99.1) 2 (0.9) < 0.001
 No 332 (42.7) 446 (57.3)   397 (51.0_ 381 (49.0)   495 (63.6) 283 (36.4)  
  1. CO central obesity, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, WHTR waist-to-height ratio