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Table 3 Predictive validity of 18-month ECD assessments in Ghana

From: A method to develop vocabulary checklists in new languages and their validity to assess early language development

  18-month domain: Language Motor Executive function Socioemotional Home environment
  18-month score: CDI vocabulary checklist KDI fine motor KDI gross motor KDI total motor A not B total correct A not B perseverative errors1 PSED competence PSED problems1 PSED total1 FCI variety of play materials FCI activities with caregivers FCI total score
Preschool domain: Preschool score:            
Cognitive Cognitive factor score 0.26** 0.09 2 0.13** 0.08 0.11**
Cognitive Pre-academic score 0.24** 0.08 0.09* 0.16** 0.18** 0.17**
Cognitive Paired-associate memory score 0.16**
Cognitive Block design score 0.14** 0.14**
Language Language score 0.25** 0.08 0.07
Executive Function Visual search speed1 − 0.12** − 0.11** − 0.09 − 0.13** − 0.13** − 0.12** − 0.13**
Executive function Inhibitory control: head/toe 0.16**
Executive function Inhibitory control: delay of gratification
Fine motor Pegboard fine motor speed1 − 0.13** −  0.08 − 0.09 − 0.08 − 0.08
Socioemotional SDQ total difficulties1 − 0.08 − 0.08 0.10* 0.10*
Socioemotional SDQ prosocial 0.08
Socioemotional Behavior rating scale − 0.17** − 0.08 − 0.08
  1. Ns for individual correlations range from 779 to 869. All p values were corrected for multiple hypothesis testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg correction
  2. 1A lower score represents better performance
  3. 2A dash (–) represents a correlation that was not significant or a trend (p > 0.1)
  4. p < 0.1
  5. *p < 0.05
  6. **p < 0.01