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Table 4 Predictors of pre-diagnosis cost among TB cases on treatment in districts of southwestern Ethiopia January to December 2015

From: Pre- and post-diagnosis costs of tuberculosis to patients on Directly Observed Treatment Short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

Variable Mean(SD) (US$) Unadjusted exp.acoefficient (95% CI) P value Adjusted exp.bcoefficient (95% CI) P value
Gender Male 112.62(0.12) Ref.   Ref.  
  Female 101.25(0.11) 0.90(0.79, 1.02) 0.1 0.94(0.86, 1.03) 0.20
HIV result Positive 131.2(0.13) 1.24(0.98, 1.55) 0.07 1.16(0.99, 1.36) 0.06
  Negative 106.02(0.11) Ref.   Ref.  
Mode of diagnosis Bacteriological 97.00(0.11) Ref.   Ref.  
  Clinical 121.08(0.12) 1.25(1.10, 1.42) 0.001 1.08(0.99, 1.18) 0.09
Residence Urban 114.61(0.12) Ref.   Ref.  
  Rural 102.13(0.1) 0.89(0.78, 1.01) 0.07   
Patient delayc(days) 1.006(1.005, 1.006) < 0.001 1.005(1.004, 1.01) < 0.001*
Provider delayc(days) 1.006(1.005, 1.01) < 0.001 1.005(1.004, 1.01) < 0.001*
Action before HCF visit None 106.72(0.12) Ref.   Ref.  
  Took actiond 113.41(0.11) 1.23(1.07, 1.41) 0.03 1.15(1.03, 1.28) 0.01
First visited HCF DOTS center 99.97(0.11) Ref.   Ref.  
  Non-DOTS center 122.57(0.11) 1.23(1.07, 1.40) 0.002 1.01(0.91, 1.11) 0.8
TB diagnosed HCF Public 101.78(0.11) Ref.   Ref.  
  Private 153.88(0.13) 1.5(1.26, 1.81) < 0.001 1.18(1.03, 1.34) 0.02*
Number of HCF visited until diagnosisb 1.40(1.34, 1.47) < 0.001 1.18(1.13, 1.23) < 0.001*
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. aExponent to the power of 10
  3. bAdjusted for all the variables listed in the table
  4. cVariable treated as continuous
  5. dSelf-treatment, used holy water, consult traditional healer