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Table 4 Socioeconomic and dietary factors associated with general and abdominal obesity

From: Dietary habits and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases in a university undergraduate population

Factors General obesity (based on BMI) Abdominal obesity (based on WC) Abdominal obesity (based on WHR)
Normal BMI n (%) Overweight/obesity n (%) χ2 p value Normal WC n (%) Overweight/obesity n (%) χ2 p value Normal WHR n (%) Overweight/obesity n (%) χ2 p value
Income
 Not consistent 87 (85) 15 (15)    87 (84.5) 16 (15.5)    87 (84.5) 16 (15.5)   
 N1000–N5000 ($3–15) 41 (83.7) 5 (10.2)    42 (85.7) 7 (14.3)    34 (69.4) 15 (30.6)   
 N5001–N10000 ($15–31) 61 (70.9) 17 (19.8) 2.157 0.11 71 (82.6) 15 (17.5) 8.996 0.53 72 (83.7) 14 (16.3) 7.975 0.16
 N10001–N20000 (32–61) 128 (76.6) 32 (19.2)    131 (78) 37 (22.0)    136 (81.0) 32 (19.0)   
 Above N20000 (> $61) 63 (64.9) 29 (29.9)    72 (74.2) 25 (25.8)    74 (76.3) 23 (23.7)   
Family history of obesity
 Yes 0 (0) 7 (35.0)    13 (65.0) 7 (35.0)    14 (70.0) 6 (30.0)   
 No 33 (6.9) 91 (18.9) 4.132 0.127 390 (80.7) 93 (19.3) 3.904 0.15 389 (80.5) 94 (19.5) 1.339 0.25
Pastry snacks intake
 Yes 17 (7.4) 49 (21.2)    187 (80.6) 45 (19.4)    189 (81.5) 43 (18.5)   
 No 16 (5.9) 49 (18.1) 1.327 0.515 216 (79.7) 55 (20.3) 1.105 0.58 214 (79.0) 57 (21.0) 0.49 0.48
Soft drinks
 Yes 5 (3.4) 24 (16.6)    50 (59.5) 34 (40.5)    53 (67.1) 47 (26.0)   
 No 28 (7.9) 74 (20.8) 5.041 0.08 138 (72.3) 53 (27.7) 5.497 0.06 134 (74.0) 26 (32.9) 1.313 0.25
Breakfast consumption
 Everyday 7 (6.2) 25 (22.1)    85 (75.2) 28 (24.8)    90 (79.6) 23 (20.4)   
 Occasionally 17 (6.6) 47 (18.1) 0.885 0.927 218 (83.8) 42 (16.2) 5.701 0.22 211 (81.2) 49 (18.8) 0.415 0.81
 Always skipped 9 (7.0) 26 (20.2)    100 (76.9) 30 (23.1)    102 (78.5) 28 (21.5)   
Alcohol consumption
 Yes 4 (4.9) 28 (34.1)    30 (62.5) 18 (37.5)    31 (72.1) 12 (27.9)   
 No 29 (6.9) 70 (16.7) 13.299 0.001 158 (69.6) 69 (30.4) 1.557 0.46 156 (71.9) 61 (28.1) 0.001 0.98