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Table 2 Relationship between preceding child death, socio-economic, bio-demographic variables, and antenatal care utilization, Nigeria, 2013

From: Death of preceding child and maternal healthcare services utilisation in Nigeria: investigation using lagged logit models

Variables Model I Model II Model III Model IV
OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Maternal socio-economic variables
 Education
  None   1.00   1.00
  Primary   2.17(1.93–2.44)*   2.18(1.94–2.45)*
  Secondary   3.28(2.83–3.79)*   3.37(2.92–3.91)*
  Higher   7.22(4.85–10.75)*   7.29(4.89–10.86)*
 Occupation
  Not working   1.00   1.00
  Professional/services   1.52(1.20–1.93)*   1.50(1.18–1.90)*
  Sales   1.29(1.16–1.44)*   1.25(1.12–1.40)*
  Agriculture/manual   1.28(1.14–1.45)*   1.24(1.10–1.41)*
 Household wealth index
  Poorest   1.00   1.00
  Poorer   1.82(1.62–2.05)*   1.83(1.63–2.06)*
  Middle   3.25(2.85–3.72)*   3.26(2.85–3.72)*
  Richer   5.72(4.84–6.76)*   5.74(4.85–6.78)*
  Richest   7.66(6.01–9.75)*   7.68(6.04–9.78)*
 Type of residence
  Urban   1.00   1.00
  Rural   0.58(0.52–0.66)*   0.59(0.52–0.67)*
 Geo-political region
  Northcentral   0.83(0.68–1.02)   0.84(0.69–1.03)
  North east   0.65(0.54–0.80)*   0.66(0.54–0.81)*
  Northwest   0.57(0.47–0.69)*   0.57(0.47–0.69)*
  Southeast   1.00(0.77–1.31)   0.99(0.76–1.30)
  South-south   0.39(0.32–0.48)*   0.39(0.32–0.48)*
  Southwest   1.00   1.00
Bio-demographic variables
 Maternal age at child’s birth
  <  20 years    1.00 1.00
  20–34 years    2.93(2.40–3.57)* 1.13(0.90–1.43)
  > = 35 years    3.86(3.11–4.79)* 1.31(1.02–1.68)*
 Marital status
  Not currently married    1.00 1.00
  Currently married    0.69(0.57–0.85)* 0.95(0.75–1.20)
 Child’s birth order
  2    1.00 1.00
  3    0.80(0.70–0.90)* 0.98(0.84–1.15)
  4+    0.54(0.49–0.60)* 1.03(0.90–1.18)
 Child’s birth interval
  < 24 months    1.00 1.00
  24–36 months    0.91(0.82–1.00) 1.02(0.91–1.15)
  > 36 months    1.05(0.95–1.17) 1.14(1.01–1.29)*
 Survival status of preceding birth
  Dead 0.64(0.57–0.71)* 0.98 (0.87–1.12) 0.67(0.61–0.75)* 1.00(0.88–1.14)
  Alive 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Model parameters
  Log likelihood − 11,422.43 − 8404.44 −11,243.46 − 8389.31
  p value (Wald statistic) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. * (p <0.05)