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Table 2 Details of outcome variables, sample, and control variables included in the analysis

From: Effect of reliable electricity on health facilities, health information, and child and maternal health services utilization: evidence from rural Gujarat, India

Outcome variables Variable description Unit of analysis Sample Control variables
I. Health facility (PHC)
 1. Availability of electricity
 2. Need for a generator
 3. Functioning deep freezer
 4. Functioning ice-lined refrigerator
 5. Functioning cold box
 6. Functioning vaccine carrier
 7. Functioning delivery room
 8. Functioning operating table
 9. Functioning delivery table
 10. Functioning examination table
Dummy variable taking value 1 if the essential device/equipment is available and functional, 0 otherwise. Primary health center (PHC) All PHCs interviewed in DLHS-II (pre-JGY) and DLHS-III (post-JGY) in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Type of building (kaccha, semi-pucca, pucca), access to piped water, access to toilet, district fixed effects, and interview year fixed effects.
In addition, district-level pre-JGY health status (proxied using under-five mortality rate in 2001) interacted with interview year dummies is included to control for unobserved differences across districts that may violate the parallel trend assumption.
II. Health information
 1. Ever heard of HIV/AIDS
 If heard, heard from:
 2. TV
 3. Any other source
Dummy variable taking value 1 if response is “Yes,” 0 otherwise. Eligible woman (women aged 18–45 that ever gave birth) Timing of JGY implementation is matched with timing of the household interviews in Gujarat. Sample includes eligible women interviewed in DLHS-II (pre-JGY) and DLHS-III (post-JGY) from Gujarat and Maharashtra but excluding those residing in districts in Gujarat where JGY was already implemented in 2003–2004. Age of the eligible woman, age squared, years of education of eligible woman, husband’s years of education, age of the household head, gender of the household head, religion and social group of the eligible woman, household standard of living index, distance to nearest health facility, district fixed effects, and interview year fixed effects.
In addition, district-level pre-JGY health status (proxied using under-five mortality rate in 2001) interacted with interview year dummies is included to control for unobserved differences across districts that may violate the parallel trend assumption.
III. Health services utilization
 A. Child immunization services
 1. Received first DPT dose
 2. Received all three DPT doses
 3. Received first polio dose
 4. Received all three polio doses
 5. Received BCG vaccine
 6. Received measles vaccine
Dummy variable taking value 1 if the child receives the specific immunization, 0 otherwise. Child (children between 0 and 36 months old at the time of survey) Timing of JGY implementation is matched with timing of birth of a child such that only those children in Gujarat born before JGY implementation in DLHS-II and those born after JGY implementation in DLHS-III are retained in the sample. All children from Maharashtra in DLHS-II and DLHS-III are included. Child’s age in months, mother’s age at birth, mother’s years of education, father’s years of education, birth order, dummy for multiple birth, age of the household head, gender of the household head, religion and social group of the child, household size, household standard of living index, distance to nearest health facility, district fixed effects, and birth year fixed effects.
In addition, district-level pre-JGY health status (proxied using under-five mortality rate in 2001) interacted with birth year dummies is included to control for unobserved differences across districts that may violate the parallel trend assumption.
 B. Maternal health services (antenatal care and institutional delivery)
 1. Received at least one ANC check-up
 2. Received at least three ANC check-ups
 3. Received ANC check-up in the first trimester
 4. Delivery in a health facility
 5. Delivery in a public health facility
 6. Delivery in a private health facility
Dummy variable taking value 1 if the pregnant woman receives the specific ANC service, 0 otherwise. Eligible woman (women who gave live or still birth to a child in the past 2 years) Timing of JGY implementation is matched with the timing of delivery such that only those eligible women in Gujarat who gave birth prior to JGY implementation in DLHS-II and those in DLHS-III who gave birth after JGY implementation are retained in the sample. All eligible women from Maharashtra in DLHS-II and DLHS-III are included. Eligible woman’s age at delivery, age squared, total number of births, total number of pregnancies, years of education of eligible woman, husband’s years of education, age of the household head, gender of the household head, religion and social group of the eligible woman, household size, household standard of living index, distance to nearest health facility, district fixed effects, and delivery year fixed effects.
In addition, district-level pre-JGY health status (proxied using under-five mortality rate in 2001) interacted with delivery year dummies is included to control for unobserved differences across districts that may violate the parallel trend assumption.