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Table 6 Effect of JGY implementation on health services utilization—child immunization

From: Effect of reliable electricity on health facilities, health information, and child and maternal health services utilization: evidence from rural Gujarat, India

Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
DPT Polio BCG Measles
First dose All doses First dose All doses
Post*Gujarat (JGY program effect) 0.074*** (0.030–0.118) 0.035 (− 0.015–0.085) 0.038** (0.000–0.076) 0.036* (− 0.005–0.077) 0.064*** (0.027–0.102) 0.122*** (0.057–0.187)
Gujarat − 0.025 (− 0.076–0.026) − 0.140*** (− 0.206 to − 0.073) 0.025 (− 0.022–0.073) − 0.082** (− 0.149 to − 0.016) − 0.056** (− 0.109 to − 0.004) 0.070 (− 0.037–0.177)
Post (birth in 2007–2008) − 0.075 (− 0.204–0.053) − 0.317*** (− 0.495 to − 0.140) 0.064 (− 0.044–0.172) − 0.231*** (− 0.398 to − 0.064) 0.125* (− 0.016–0.265) − 0.166 (− 0.430–0.099)
Age in months 0.015*** (0.013–0.017) 0.024*** (0.022–0.027) 0.013*** (0.011–0.015) 0.025*** (0.022–0.027) 0.009*** (0.007–0.011) 0.038*** (0.035–0.040)
Mother’s age at birth 0.003*** (0.001–0.005) 0.006*** (0.003–0.008) 0.002** (0.000–0.004) 0.005*** (0.002–0.007) 0.004*** (0.001–0.006) 0.004*** (0.002–0.007)
Mother’s years of schooling 0.006*** (0.004–0.008) 0.005*** (0.002–0.008) 0.004*** (0.001–0.006) 0.004*** (0.002–0.007) 0.007*** (0.005–0.009) 0.004*** (0.001–0.008)
Father’s years of schooling 0.004*** (0.002–0.006) 0.003** (0.001–0.005) 0.003*** (0.001–0.005) 0.004*** (0.002–0.006) 0.004*** (0.002–0.006) 0.005*** (0.003–0.007)
Birth order − 0.013*** (− 0.019 to − 0.006) − 0.009** (− 0.016 to − 0.002) − 0.010*** (− 0.016 to − 0.005) − 0.003 (− 0.011–0.005) − 0.008*** (− 0.015 to − 0.002) − 0.016*** (− 0.024 to − 0.008)
Multiple birth 0.030 (− 0.049–0.109) − 0.054 (− 0.166–0.058) 0.042 (− 0.031–0.115) 0.002 (− 0.100–0.103) 0.009 (− 0.049–0.066) − 0.030 (− 0.152–0.092)
Age of the head 0.000 (− 0.000–0.001) 0.000 (− 0.001–0.001) − 0.000 (− 0.001–0.000) 0.000 (− 0.001–0.001) − 0.000 (− 0.001–0.000) − 0.000 (− 0.001–0.000)
Female head 0.014 (− 0.017–0.044) − 0.016 (− 0.053–0.022) 0.005 (− 0.023–0.033) − 0.004 (− 0.038–0.030) 0.001 (− 0.033–0.036) 0.003 (− 0.045–0.050)
Household size − 0.002 (− 0.005–0.001) − 0.001 (− 0.004–0.002) − 0.000 (− 0.003–0.002) − 0.002 (− 0.005–0.001) − 0.001 (− 0.003–0.001) − 0.001 (− 0.004–0.003)
Standard of living index − 0.001 (− 0.003–0.001) 0.002*** (0.001–0.004) − 0.003*** (−0.004 to − 0.001) 0.001 (− 0.000–0.003) − 0.001 (− 0.002–0.001) − 0.002** (− 0.004 to − 0.000)
Distance to nearest health facility 0.000 (− 0.002–0.002) −0.001 (− 0.003–0.001) 0.000 (− 0.002–0.002) 0.001 (− 0.001–0.003) − 0.002** (−0.004 to − 0.000) 0.002 (− 0.001–0.004)
Observations 8988 8285 9044 8302 8792 8980
  1. Reported coefficients are probit marginal effects. Regressions include religion and social group dummies, district fixed effects, birth year fixed effects, and district-level pre-JGY health status interacted with birth year dummies. Standard errors clustered at the district level. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1