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Table 2 OLS estimates for effect of environment on BMI of immigrants (NIS 2003)

From: Association between environmental factors and BMI: evidence from recent immigrants from developing countries

Dependent var.: BMI Male Female All
(1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3)
Local obesity rate 0.107 (0.061) 0.111* (0.059) 0.089 (0.112) 0.182** (0.076) 0.175** (0.077) 0.261** (0.090) 0.148** (0.063) 0.144** (0.062) 0.162* (0.092)
Age (years) 0.028* (0.014) 0.024 (0.014) 0.023 (0.014) 0.076*** (0.022) 0.076*** (0.021) 0.073*** (0.021) 0.046** (0.017) 0.040** (0.017) 0.039** (0.017)
College degree (= 1) − 0.186 (0.239) − 0.174 (0.258) − 0.143 (0.256) − 0.828** (0.353) − 0.891** (0.346) − 0.883** (0.343) − 0.552** (0.245) − 0.517** (0.238) − 0.478* (0.226)
Married (= 1) 0.229 (0.238) 0.389 (0.232) 0.407 (0.232) 0.814 (0.521) 0.865 (0.559) 0.850 (0.561) 0.414 (0.268) 0.505 (0.312) 0.519 (0.317)
Employed (= 1) 0.638** (0.267) 0.608** (0.262) 0.614** (0.26) − 0.198 (0.382) − 0.053 (0.376) − 0.011 (0.383) − 0.090 (0.288) − 0.0003 (0.284) 0.018 (0.285)
Number of children 0.275** (0.118) 0.257** (0.118) 0.256** (0.11) 0.578*** (0.126) 0.546*** (0.137) 0.536*** (0.14) 0.456*** (0.061) 0.437*** (0.063) 0.431*** (0.064)
Duration of residence in the USA (years) 0.066** (0.027) 0.076** (0.026) 0.072** (0.027) 0.033 (0.025) 0.044* (0.022) 0.035 (0.023) 0.050** (0.026) 0.064** (0.024) 0.057** (0.026)
Citizenship sponsored through employer (= 1) 0.267* (0.192) 0.197 (0.198) 0.240 (0.230) 0.253 (0.431) 0.091 (0.430) 0.213 (0.443) 0.307 (0.230) 0.224 (0.234) 0.298 (0.264)
From Asia (= 1) − 1.159*** (0.265) − 1.206*** (0.278) − 1.283*** (0.253) − 2.191*** (0.667) − 2.060*** (0.615) − 2.412*** (0.703) − 1.574*** (0.250) − 1.576*** (0.250) − 1.738*** (0.294)
From Africa (= 1) Base Base Base Base Base Base Base Base Base
From Latin America and the Caribbean (= 1) 1.430** (0.577) 1.461** (0.555) 1.367** (0.507) 1.621** (0.743) 1.679** (0.642) 1.317** (0.601) 1.569** (0.562) 1.538** (0.525) 1.353** (0.469)
Income (= income/10000) 0.049* (0.024) 0.055** (0.022) 0.055** (0.022) − 0.027 (0.050) − 0.026 (0.047) − 0.014 (0.045) 0.047*** (0.014) 0.050*** (0.014) 0.052*** (0.013)
Gender − 0.967*** (0.197) − 0.974*** (0.178) − 0.976*** (0.185)
Smoker (= 1) − 0.11 (0.257) − 0.078 (0.260) − 0.077 (0.261) − 0.653 (0.731) − 0.630 (0.744) − 0.616 (0.763) − 0.321 (0.192) − 0.292 (0.185) − 0.283 (0.188)
Alcohol consumer (= 1) 0.403 (0.245) 0.410 (0.234) 0.409* (0.227) − 0.003 (0.270) 0.018 (0.267) 0.017* (0.279) 0.215 (0.194) 0.244 (0.192) 0.227 (0.187)
Diet change (= 1) − 0.149 (0.283) − 0.145 (0.280) 0.249* (0.127) 0.265* (0.141) − 0.013 (0.170) − 0.011 (0.164)
Education in the USA (years) − 0.065** (0.030) − 0.066** (0.029) − 0.072 (0.043) − 0.073* (0.041) − 0.071** (0.025) − 0.071** (0.024)
Speaks English well/very well (= 1) − 0.037 (0.314) 0.059 (0.317) 0.736* (0.390) 0.645 (0.384) 0.264 (0.258) 0.255 (0.258)
Speaks English with spouse (= 1) − 0.577** (0.207) − 0.583** (0.207) − 0.187 (0.259) − 0.169 (0.256) − 0.390* (0.188) − 0.383* (0.187)
Speaks English with friends (= 1) 0.440 (0.275) 0.463 (0.290) 0.209 (0.379) 0.319 (0.369) 0.341 (0.251) 0.396 (0.267)
Speaks English at work (= 1) − 0.190 (0.427) − 0.215 (0.442) − 0.968** (0.374) − 0.947** (0.368) − 0.689* (0.376) − 0.698* (0.377)
Percentage of immigrant population 0.012 (0.027) 0.099*** (0.025) 0.049** (0.021)
Percentage of White population in the state − 0.008 (0.025) 0.047* (0.022) 0.013 (0.018)
State poverty rate − 0.002 (0.047) − 0.007 (0.052) − 0.002 (0.042)
Constant 20.03*** (1.187) 20.15*** (1.138) 21.16*** (4.051) 16.74*** (1.586) 16.88*** (1.329) 10.42** (3.609) 20.23*** (1.312) 20.69*** (1.138) 18.70*** (3.084)
N 1189 1189 1189 913 913 913 2102 2102 2102
R square 0.151 0.156 0.157 0.253 0.258 0.263 0.191 0.195 0.198
Individual control variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Acculturation variables No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Environmental variables No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes
  1. Standard errors are corrected for heteroscedasticity and clustered at state level. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01. Individual controls are immigrant demographic variables such as age, employment status, number of children, marital status, year, if citizenship was sponsored, and the region of origin. Acculturation variables are English-speaking proficiency, use of English while conversing at work, use of English with friends, use of English with a spouse, years of education in the USA. Environmental variables are poverty rate, percent of immigrants, and percent of White population in the state