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Table 3 Birth registration, childhood immunization, and maternal health service indicators in lower middle-income countries (N = 38)

From: A missed opportunity: birth registration coverage is lagging behind Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunization coverage and maternal health services utilization in low- and lower middle-income countries

Lower middle-income countries N = 38 Survey data source World Bank region Birth registration under 1 year BCG 12 months |BCG-BRR|** ≥ ANC1 |ANC > =1-BRR|+ Facility delivery* |Facility delivery-BRR|++ BCG wealth inequality q5–q1 Birth registration wealth inequality q5–q1
Bangladesh MICS 2012–2013 South Asia 9 97.8 88.8 47.7 38.7 16 7 3.3 17
Bhutan 2010 MICS East Asia and Pacific 100    97.4 2.6 63.1 36.9   0
Bolivia DHS 2008 Latin America and the Caribbean 47 98.4 51.4 90.1 43.1 69.3 22.3 20.7 22.4
Cambodia DHS 2010 East Asia and Pacific 50 95.9 45.9 90.5 40.5 87 37 .8 30
Cameroon MICS 2014 Sub-Saharan Africa 56 91.2 35.2 82.4 26.4 61.3 5.3 18.2 60.8
Cote d'Ivoire MICS 2016 Sub-Saharan Africa 59 78.3 19.3 93.3 34.3 69.8 10.8 31.7 46
Djibouti MICS 2006 Middle East and North Africa 23 87.5 64.5    87.4 64.4   
Egypt MICS 2013–2014 Middle East and North Africa 96 91.1 5.0 90.7 5.3 82.1 13.9   1
El Salvador MICS 2014 Latin America and the Caribbean 98.1 97.7 .4 96.5 1.6 97.5 .6 .2  
Eswatini 2014 MICS Sub-Saharan Africa 41 97 56 94.9 53.9 75.1 34.1   34
Ghana MICS 2011 Sub-Saharan Africa 45 96.6 51.6 96.7 51.7 75.3 30.3 5.2 35
Honduras DHS 2011–2012 Latin America and the Caribbean 77 98.4 21.4 96.6 19.6 84.7 7.7 23.4 3.6
India NFHS 2005–2006 South Asia 39 75.6 36.6 76.3 37.3 40.8 1.8 31.4 48.5
Indonesia DHS 2012 East Asia and Pacific 59 88.6 29.6 96.3 37.3 66.8 7.8 18.9 47.4
Kenya 2014 DHS Sub-Saharan Africa 64 95.9 31.9 95.7 31.7 61.2 2.9 5.6 36.6
Kosovo MICS 2013–2014 Europe and Central Asia 84.1 98.7 14.6 97.8 13.7 99 14.9 1.6 12.1
Kyrgyz Republic 2014 MICS Europe and Central Asia   99.6   98.4   98.3   1.2 − .1
Lao PDR MICS 2017 East Asia and Pacific 60.1 81.5 21.4 54.2 5.9 64.5 4.4 20.9 26.9
Lesotho 2009 DHS Sub-Saharan Africa 59.6 97.6 38 89.3 29.7 79 19.4 35.5 28.6
Mauritania MICS 2015 Sub-Saharan Africa 84.6 83.2 1.4 80.6 4.0 69.3 15.3 13.9 51
Moldova MICS 2012 Europe and Central Asia 45 97.8 52.8 98.8 53.8 98.9 53.9 − 4.9 1
Mongolia MICS 2013 East Asia and Pacific 98 97.9 .1 98.7 0.7 98.5 .5 1.2 .6
Morocco DHS 2003–2004 Middle East and North Africa   97.8   38.3   63.1   24.6  
Myanmar MICS 2009–2010 East Asia and Pacific 70.2 97.2 27 93.1 22.9 36.2 34 .3 45.5
Nicaragua DHS 2001 Latin America and the Caribbean   94.8   85.3   69.3   23.8  
Nigeria MICS 2016–2017 Sub-Saharan Africa 37 52.8 15.8 65.8 28.8 37.5 .5 63.9 64
Pakistan DHS 2006–2007 South Asia   83.2   65.2   52.7   .8 66.4
Philippines 2010 Census East Asia and Pacific 88 94.8 6.8 95.9 7.9 66.2 21.8 1.3  
R-Congo DHS 2011–2012 Sub-Saharan Africa 88 93.3 5.3 92.2 4.2 91.8 3.9 10.7 19
Sao Tome and Principe 2014 MICS Sub-Saharan Africa 51 95.2 44.2 97.5 46.5 91 40 − 2.2 11.1
Sudan MICS 2014 Sub-Saharan Africa 62 78.5 16.5 74.3 12.3 27.7 34.3 26.6 60.9
Timor-Leste DHS 2009–2010 East Asia and Pacific 30 76.6 46.6 86.7 56.7 23.8 6.2   51.4
Tunisia MICS 2011–2012 Middle East and North Africa 98.1 98.1 0 97 1.1 98.5 .4 .6 38
Ukraine MICS 2012 Europe and Central Asia 98.8 94.5 4.3 98.6 0.2 99.6 .8 4.0 17
Uzbekistan 2006 MICS Europe and Central Asia 99.9 99.2 .7 99 0.9 97.3 2.6 0 − .9
Vanuatu MICS 2007–2008 East Asia and Pacific 22.8 79.1 56.3 98.1 75.3 79.8 57 − 12.8 .1
Vietnam 2014 MICS East Asia and Pacific 88.1 98 9.9 87.1 1.0 78.5 9.6 10.4 27.6
Zambia DHS 2013–2014 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.5 94.1 91.6 98.2 95.7 67.4 64.9 5.1 9.3
  1. *Delivery within the last 3 years
  2. **Egypt, El Salvador, Mongolia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan—the difference is negative
  3. +Bhutan, Egypt, El Salvador, Lao PDR, Mauritania, Tunisia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam—the difference is negative
  4. ++Bhutan, Egypt, El Salvador, Kenya, Mauritania, Myanmar, Philippines, Sudan, Timor-Leste, Uzbekistan, Vietnam—the difference is negative