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Table 3 Probit regressions for the correlates of birth registration, marginal effects (dF/dX)

From: Obstacles to birth registration in Niger: estimates from a recent household survey

  Model 1 Model 2
Rural Urban Rural Urban
Leave-out means     
 Birth registration 0.9990*** 0.3764***   
(0.0300) (0.0354)   
 Lack of availability    − 0.9600*** − 0.2545**
   (0.0573) (0.1110)
 Remoteness    − 0.9740*** − 0.3512***
   (0.0437) (0.0822)
 Lack of knowledge    − 0.9144*** − 0.3126***
   (0.0494) (0.0724)
 No utility    − 0.8451*** − 0.5969***
   (0.0736) (0.0808)
 Costs    − 0.7562*** − 0.184
   (0.1082) (0.1494)
Geographic location (reference is Niamey for urban areas)  
 Agadez Ref. 0.0516*** Ref. 0.0444**
  (0.0187)   (0.0191)
 Diffa 0.0528 0.0033 0.0413 − 0.0132
(0.0387) (0.0251) (0.0400) (0.0288)
 Dosso 0.1014*** − 0.0237 0.0508 − 0.0328
(0.0373) (0.0342) (0.0382) (0.0357)
 Maradi 0.0712* 0.0141 0.0378 0.0017
(0.0365) (0.0249) (0.0375) (0.0260)
 Tahoua 0.0871** 0.0335 0.0385 0.0347
(0.0371) (0.0383) (0.0376) (0.0378)
 Tillaberi 0.0630* − 0.0006 − 0.0066 − 0.0123
(0.0360) (0.0519) (0.0373) (0.0546)
 Zinder 0.0234 − 0.0238 − 0.0204 − 0.0492
(0.0367) (0.0356) (0.0374) (0.0382)
Characteristics of the child
 Female − 0.0374*** − 0.0268* − 0.0320** -0.0270*
(0.0144) (0.0144) (0.0142) (0.0143)
 Age     
  1 year old 0.0215 0.0012 0.0236 0.0021
(0.0227) (0.0211) (0.0224) (0.0209)
  2 years old − 0.0405* − 0.0253 − 0.0342 − 0.0237
(0.0220) (0.0225) (0.0217) (0.0223)
  3 years old − 0.0922*** 0.0206 − 0.0900*** 0.0203
(0.0213) (0.0208) (0.0211) (0.0207)
  4 years old − 0.0853*** − 0.0058 − 0.0806*** − 0.0038
(0.0232) (0.0233) (0.0229) (0.0230)
 Disability − 0.0805 − 0.0077 − 0.0906 0.0129
(0.0572) (0.0720) (0.0563) (0.0678)
Characteristics of the household
 Number of children     
  0–5 years old − 0.0023 − 0.0031 − 0.0019 − 0.0046
(0.0066) (0.0076) (0.0066) (0.0075)
  6–12 years old − 0.0113** 0.0148** − 0.0093* 0.0115*
(0.0048) (0.0061) (0.0048) (0.0061)
  13–17 years old 0.0245*** − 0.0025 0.0204** − 0.0008
(0.0090) (0.0090) (0.0089) (0.0090)
 Spouse married as a child 0.0031 0.0082 0.0081 0.0069
(0.0232) (0.0169) (0.0229) (0.0170)
 Education of the head     
  Primary 0.0575** 0.0042 0.0660*** 0.0005
(0.0243) (0.0199) (0.0238) (0.0199)
  Secondary 0.0498 − 0.0282 0.0584* − 0.0347
(0.0355) (0.0249) (0.0352) (0.0254)
  Post-secondary 0.3242 0.0409 0.3829 0.0361
(0.2545) (0.0427) (0.2398) (0.0436)
 Education of the spouse     
  Primary − 0.0014 0.0606*** 0.0024 0.0613***
(0.0259) (0.0175) (0.0255) (0.0172)
  Secondary 0.1627*** 0.0735*** 0.1599*** 0.0738***
(0.0501) (0.0226) (0.0490) (0.0225)
  Post-secondary   − 0.0258   − 0.0368
  (0.0662)   (0.0681)
 Marital status of head     
  Never married − 0.0158 0.0114 − 0.0169 0.0042
(0.0763) (0.0739) (0.0744) (0.0759)
  Polygamy 0.0053 0 0.0005 − 0.0013
(0.0191) (0.0204) (0.0189) (0.0204)
 Wealth quintiles     
  Second − 0.0057 0.0261 − 0.0002 0.013
(0.0207) (0.0544) (0.0205) (0.0569)
  Third 0.0074 0.007 0.0162 0.0003
(0.0207) (0.0512) (0.0205) (0.0534)
  Fourth 0.0601*** 0.0192 0.0604*** 0.0218
(0.0212) (0.0450) (0.0210) (0.0459)
  Top 0.2059*** 0.1065* 0.1992*** 0.1213**
(0.0391) (0.0560) (0.0387) (0.0590)
 Occupation of head     
  Domestic work − 0.1695*** − 0.1479* − 0.1612*** − 0.1042
(0.0457) (0.0816) (0.0452) (0.0780)
  Administration 0.4017*** 0.0088 0.3960*** 0.0049
(0.0857) (0.0253) (0.0854) (0.0256)
  Trade 0.0497* − 0.0402** 0.0570** − 0.0448**
(0.0288) (0.0181) (0.0286) (0.0182)
  No occupation 0.0638 0.0212 0.0869 0.0239
(0.0740) (0.0399) (0.0730) (0.0387)
 Occupation of spouse     
  Domestic work − 0.0015 0.0121 − 0.004 0.0164
(0.0156) (0.0182) (0.0155) (0.0181)
  Administration − 0.1127 0.0605 − 0.1296 0.0662*
(0.1664) (0.0398) (0.1589) (0.0380)
  Trade − 0.1005** 0.0396 − 0.0819* 0.0421
(0.0467) (0.0280) (0.0459) (0.0271)
  No occupation − 0.0794 − 0.0306 − 0.076 − 0.0323
(0.0568) (0.0332) (0.0559) (0.0332)
 Number observations 6106 1683 6106 1683
  1. Source: Authors’ estimation using ENISED data.
  2. Note: *** denotes p value at or below 0.01, ** at or below 0.05, and * at or below 0.1.