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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of unawareness of active NHIS enrollment status (χ2 test)

From: Unawareness of health insurance expiration status among women of reproductive age in Northern Ghana: implications for achieving universal health coverage

DeterminantsActive enrollment status
Seen and valid, n (%)Seen and invalid, n (%)p value
Age group
 15–19513 (67)247 (33) 
 20–341064 (66)557 (34)0.366
 35–49794 (64)439 (36) 
Level of education
 None1366 (65)747 (35) 
 Primary/junior high school786 (64)415 (36)0.034
 Secondary/tertiary208 (73)75 (27) 
 Other11 (65)6 (35) 
Functional literacy (ability to read and understand)
 Yes768 (68)355 (32)0.018
 No1603 (64)888 (36) 
Marital status
 Not married yet (single)583 (67)283 (33) 
 Married1656 (65)888 (35)0.65
 Widowed113 (64)63 (36) 
 Divorced/separated19 (68)9 (32) 
Marriage type
 Polygamous561 (63)324 (37)0.358
 Monogamous1083 (66)556 (34) 
 Do not know12 (60)8 (40) 
Occupation
 Farming757 (61)474 (39) 
 Trading403 (67)199 (33) 
 Artisan317 (70)133 (30) 
 No occupation/housewife321 (66)162 (34)0.003
 Civil servant41 (79)11 (21) 
 Student453 (66)230 (34) 
 Other79 (70)34 (30) 
Religion
 Christianity1313 (64)727 (36) 
 Traditional religion200 (61)126 (39)< 0.001
 Islam834 (70)362 (30) 
 No religion24 (46)28 (54) 
Area of residence
 Urban216 (66)110 (34)0.613
 Semi-urban345 (67)167 (33) 
 Rural1810 (65)966 (35) 
District of residence
 Bolga M.211 (61)135 (39) 
 Bongo298 (63)174 (37) 
 Builsa374 (63)216 (37) 
 Garu/Tempani651 (69)298 (31)< 0.001
 Bawku West228 (71)94 (29) 
 Talensi/Nabdam207 (59)146 (41) 
 Bawku East391 (69)173 (31) 
SES (wealth index)
 Quintile 1 (poorest)459 (60)301 (40) 
 Quintile 2788 (65)424 (35)< 0.001
 Quintile 3167 (63)96 (37) 
 Quintile 4494 (68)233 (32) 
 Quintile 5 (richest)463 (71)189 (29) 
Autonomy
 Not autonomous820 (67)410 (33)0.234
 Semi-autonomous391 (64)216 (36) 
 Autonomous445 (63)262 (37) 
  1. Figures in parentheses are percentages