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Table 5 Health-seeking behavior for CNCDs: estimated coefficients in multinomial logistic regression model

From: Determinants of health seeking behavior for chronic non-communicable diseases and related out-of-pocket expenditure: results from a cross-sectional survey in northern Bangladesh

Type of health seeking1No care or self-care vs. qualified professional careSemi-qualified pr. care vs. qualified professional care
 β coefficient95% CIP valueβ coefficient95% CIP value
Intercept− 1.878− 3.92,
0.16
0.07− 2.791− 4.39,
− 1.19
0.001
Individual characteristics
 Primary level education and above (reference group: no schooling)− 0.624− 1.07,
− 0.17
0.007− 0.187− 0.53,
0.15
0.28
 Have major CNCD (reference group: have minor CNCD)− 0.523− 1.01,
− 0.04
0.03− 0.665− 1.02,
− 0.31
< 0.001
Household characteristics
 Proportion of CNCD patients in household1.5610.64,
2.49
0.0011.5220.78,
2.27
< 0.001
 Asset quintile (reference group: 1st quintile)      
 2nd quintile− 0.794− 1.50,
− 0.09
0.03− 0.893− 1.44,
− 0.35
0.001
 3rd quintile− 0.841− 1.57,
− 0.12
0.02− 0.872− 1.43,
− 0.31
0.002
 4th quintile− 0.498− 1.19,
0.19
0.16− 0.783− 1.33,
− 0.23
0.005
 5th quintile (least poor)− 0.627− 1.33,
0.08
0.08− 0.987− 1.54,
− 0.43
< 0.001
 Presence of acute illness in household (reference group: no acute illness in household)− 0.468− 1.02,
0.08
0.100.308− 0.12,
0.74
0.16
Contextual characteristics
 Distance to sub-district’s public referral health facility0.140− 0.03,
0.31
0.110.2320.10,
0.36
< 0.001
 Type of residence (reference group: rural)      
Urban0.951− 0.23,
2.13
0.111.2970.39,
2.21
0.005
 Sub-district of residence (reference group: Rangpur Sadar)      
  Mithapukur1.0400.25,
1.83
0.011.4580.80,
2.12
< 0.001
  Badarganj− 0.393− 1.81,
1.03
0.590.623− 0.48,
1.73
0.27
  Pirganj− 1.166− 2.35,
0.02
0.050.637− 0.13,
1.40
0.10
  Pirgacha0.112− 0.85,
1.07
0.821.4570.71,
2.20
< 0.001
Multinomial logistic regression model specifications:
 Pseudo R2 = 0.1028X2 (28) = 182.04, P > X2 = 0.0000
 Hausman tests of IIA assumptionX2 (15) = 14.71 (omitted semi-qualified care), P > X2 = 0.473, X2 (15) = 10.37 (omitted no/self-care), P > X2 = 0.796
 Small-Hsiao tests of IIA assumptionX2 (15) = 12.35 (omitted semi-qualified care), P > X2 = 0.652, X2 (15) = 9.27 (omitted no/self-care), P > X2 = 0.863
  1. CNCDs, chronic non-communicable diseases; pr., professional; CI, confidence interval; IIA, independence of irrelevant alternatives
  2. 1We considered qualified professional care seekers as reference category for multinomial logistic regression