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Table 6 Distribution of total out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and expenditure for drugs (in BDT)

From: Determinants of health seeking behavior for chronic non-communicable diseases and related out-of-pocket expenditure: results from a cross-sectional survey in northern Bangladesh

Variable and
sub-category
Total direct OOPE1 (N = 754)2Expenditure on drugs3 (N = 728) 4
5% trimmedMedian75% trimmedMedian10
Mean5Range6 (min-max)Mean8Range9
(min-max)
Type of care soughtNo care or self-care466.2(10–4050)200372.8(10–3000)175
Semi-qualified care765.9(30–5000)350535.1(30–3000)300
Qualified care3224.6(200–18000)20001811.3(50–11000)1000
AgeProductive-age group (15 < 60 years)1647.5(50–10500)800961.6(40–6000)500
Elderly (≥ 60 years)2495.4(30–23300)10001727.9(50–20000)500
SexMale1753.3(50–12000)7501018.8(50- 5000)500
Female1787.3(40–13000)8251092.0(40–8000)500
EducationNo schooling1538.3(30- 10880)6301062.9(30–8900)500
Primary education and above1969.6(60–13000)9751066.5(50- 6000)500
Status of occupationNot income generating2012.6(50–14450)8851192.0(50–8000)500
Income generating1525.4(50- 8000)700931.0(40–5000)500
Being household headNo1847.1(50–13005)9101122.5(45–8000)500
Yes1652.3(50–10500)700993.3(40–5000)500
Type of CNCDMajor CNCD2313.4(100–2000)12501343.4(100–7000)600
Minor CNCD1453.3(40–13000)550888.1(30- 8000)400
Asset quintile1st quintile (poorest)1722.9(30–15000)5501000.7(30–10000)500
2nd quintile1318.5(50–7200)700893.4(50–5000)500
3rd quintile1749.6(30- 9000)8501075.2(30–6000)500
4th quintile1373.4(40–8000)700861.6(35–5000)500
5th quintile (least poor)2690.3(90–16000)15001494.0(60–10000)600
Type of residenceRural2080.9(75- 13000)10001218.5(50–8000)600
Urban1542.2(30- 12000)700945.2(40–7000)500
Sub-district of residenceRangpur Sadar2211.9(50–15000)11601465.2(50–8900)775
Mithapukur1034.3(30–8000)400626.5(30–4000)300
Badarganj3537.7(400–2000)23501633.0(200–10000)900
Pirganj1941.2(120- 10120)1111.51206.9(100–5000)500
Pirgacha3539.5(25–20000)21002311.4(100–15000)1200
  1. OOPE, out-of-pocket expenditure; CNCD, chronic non-communicable disease; BDT, Bangladeshi Taka
  2. 1Total OOPE consists of expenditure for consultation fee, drugs, diagnostics, informal pay and transport cost. The expenditure is shown in Bangladeshi taka (BDT). Exchange rate of data collection period (June–July, 2013), 1 USD~78 BDT
  3. 2Not all CNCD respondents incurred expenditure or reported on it. We found 754 respondents out of 866 who reported about OOPE
  4. 3We show expenditure for drugs besides total OOPE, because it constituted the largest component (85%) of total OOPE. The expenditure is shown in Bangladeshi taka (BDT). Exchange rate of data collection period (June–July, 2013), 1 USD~78 BDT
  5. 4Most respondents reported a lump-sum OOPE and had difficulty recalling cost breakdowns. This is the reason we have fewer observations for expenditure on drugs compared to observations of total OOPE
  6. 5We observed skewed distribution of OOPE. Therefore, we reported a 5% trimmed mean
  7. 6We observed skewed distribution of OOPE. Therefore, we reported a 5% trimmed range (minimum-maximum)
  8. 7Median of all OOPE observations (754 observations)
  9. 8We observed skewed distribution of expenditure on medications. Therefore, we reported a 5% trimmed mean
  10. 9We observed skewed distribution of drug costs. Therefore, we reported a 5% trimmed range (minimum-maximum)
  11. 10Median of all observations that reported on drug expenditure (728 observations)