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Table 2 Descriptive statistics, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the YFAS

From: Turkish version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale: preliminary results of factorial structure, reliability, and construct validity

ItemsTotal Sample (n = 1033)EFA sample 1 (n = 1033)CFA sample 2 (n = 1033)Cronbach’s alpha coefficients
X ± SD or %Factor loadingsStandardized coefficients 
Substance taken in larger amounts and for longer period than intended   .769
 1. I find that when I start eating certain foods, I end up eating much more than planned1.8 ± 1.27.756.81 
 2. I find myself continuing to consume certain foods even though I am no longer hungry1.7 ± 1.32.768.89 
 3. I eat to the point where I feel physically ill1.1 ± 1.23.656.83 
Repeated unsuccessful attempts to quit   .516
 4. Not eating certain types of food or cutting down on certain types of food is something I worry about.1.4 ± 1.41.452.66 
 22. I want to cut down or stop eating certain kinds of food.54.7.744.74 
 24. I have been successful at cutting down or not eating these kinds of food.39.8.699.78 
 25. How many times in the past year did you try to cut down or stop eating certain foods altogether?1.9 ± 1.8.652.57 
Too much time spent on eating and food   .651
 5. I spend a lot of time feeling sluggish or fatigued from overeating1.3 ± 1.32.583.79 
 6. I find myself constantly eating certain foods throughout the day1.1 ± 1.25.638.89 
 7. I find that when certain foods are not available, I will go out of my way to obtain them. For example, I will drive to the store to purchase certain foods even though I have other options available to me at home.1.0 ± 1.19.520.77 
Giving up social, occupational or recreational activities to eat   .820
 8. There have been times when I consumed certain foods so often or in such large quantities that I started to eat food instead of working, spending time with my family or friends, or engaging in other important activities or recreational activities I enjoy.0.5 ± 0.89.636.96 
 9. There have been times when I consumed certain foods so often or in such large quantities that I spent time dealing with negative feelings from overeating instead of working, spending time with my family or friends, or engaging in other important activities or recreational activities I enjoy.0.4 ± 0.89.7211.00 
 10. There have been times when I avoided professional or social situations where certain foods were available, because I was afraid I would overeat.0.4 ± 0.89.787.93 
 11. There have been times when I avoided professional or social situations because I was not able to consume certain foods there.0.4 ± 0.81.781.95 
Using continues despite knowledge of adverse consequences to eating behaviors   
 19. I kept consuming the same types of food or the same amount of food even though I was having emotional and/or physical problems.29.0.663 
Tolerance to food   .464
 20. Over time, I have found that I need to eat more and more to get the feeling I want, such as reduced negative emotions or increased pleasure.31.6.599.95 
 21. I have found that eating the same amount of food does not reduce my negative emotions or increase pleasurable feelings the way it used to.44.1.772.90 
Withdrawal from not eating   .760
 12. I have had withdrawal symptoms such as agitation, anxiety, or other physical symptoms when I cut down or stopped eating certain foods.0.5 ± 0.95.645.95 
 13. I have consumed certain foods to prevent feelings of anxiety, agitation, or other physical symptoms that were developing.0.8 ± 1.06.481.88 
 14. I have found that I have elevated desire for or urges to consume certain foods when I cut down or stop eating them.1.0 ± 1.12.448.84 
Using causes clinically significant impairment   .688
 15. My behavior with respect to food and eating causes significant distress0.7 ± 1.11.532.96 
 16. I experience significant problems in my ability to function effectively (daily routine, job/school, social activities, family activities, health difficulties) because of food and eating0.5 ± 0.93.621.95