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Table 1 Average points and reliability of PHQ-9 items according to the prevalence of depression

From: Low fruit and vegetable intake is associated with depression among Korean adults in data from the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Patient Health Questionnaire-9Non-depression1 (n = 4050)Depression2 (n = 299)Total (n = 4349)
MeanSEMeanSEMeanSE
1. Little interest or pleasure in doing things0.330.011.70.10.40.01
2. Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless0.20.011.80.10.30.01
3. Trouble falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much0.40.022.20.10.60.02
4. Feeling tired or having little energy0.60.022.40.10.70.02
5. Poor appetite or overeating0.20.011.50.10.30.01
6. Feeling bad about yourself—or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down0.10.011.50.10.20.01
7. Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television0.10.011.00.10.10.01
8. Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed. Or the opposite, being so fidgety or restless that you have been moving around a lot more than usual0.040.0040.80.10.10.01
9. Thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in some way0.050.0040.90.10.10.01
Total score2.10.0413.80.22.80.1
Cronbach’s α0.808
  1. 1Total score of PHQ (Patient Health Questionnaire)-9 < 10
  2. 2Total score of PHQ-9 10
  3. 3Q. 1–9. Score (0: Not at all, 1: Several days, 2: More than half the days, 3: Every day)