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Table 2 Overview of results

From: Challenges and responses to infant and young child feeding in rural Rwanda: a qualitative study

 Perceptions theme 1: “The way we do it”Perceptions theme 2: “Struggling with everyday reality”
IYCF practicesAppropriate IYCFChallenging situationsResponses
BF practices- Early initiation of breastfeeding- Breast milk production is not yet established immediately after birth- The child is given boiled water to relieve hunger
  - The child is given cow’s milk instead of breast milk for a short period
- No other foods or drink is given to the baby except breast milk up to 6 months- The child < 6 months shows appetite- The food is provided to child
- Breastfeed the baby on demand- The mother fears losing occasional daily labor- The child is not breastfed on demand
- Importance of mother–child interaction:  
- Affective and responsive breastfeeding- Anxiety due to conflict between partners- Limited care while breastfeeding
- Touching and eye-to-eye contact with the child while breastfeeding- Stress due to limited (financial) support from partner- Limited care while breastfeeding
- Respect the child’s hunger and satiety cues- Excessive workload- Short time for breastfeeding and little mother–child interaction
CF practices- Introduction of CF at 6 months- The child older than 6 months refuses food or is not interested- Continued exclusive BF instead of providing complementary food
- Foods 6–8 months: porridge, cow’s milk, biscuits, fruits- Belief that breast milk alone is enough after 6 months of the child’s life- Continuation of exclusive BF beyond 6 months
- Foods 9–12 months: beans, sweet potatoes, cooking bananas, vegetables, small fish in addition to porridge, and cow’s milk started earlier- Excessive workload- Preparing food from what is available at hand, caring less about the quality
- Foods 13–23 months: beans, vegetables, sweet potatoes, cassava- Poverty- Selling more nutritious and expensive food to buy cheaper food
- Responsible for preparation: mothers, except when seriously ill (father) or away (female siblings, grandmothers, babysitters) - Looking for casual labor in the plots of well-to-do neighbors
- Infant has own pot because of immaturity of digestive system - Mothers’ saving and lending groups
- Food stored in closed pot or container and warmed up for next feed - Kitchen garden