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Table 3 Parameter estimates, standard errors and p values of the fixed effects for the bivariate copula regression model for anaemia and malaria

From: Copula geoadditive modelling of anaemia and malaria in young children in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda

Variable Anaemia Malaria
  Estimate St. error p value Estimate St. error p value
Gender (ref = male)
Female − 0.083 0.019 <0.001   NA  
Type of place of residence (ref = urban)
Rural − 0.020 0.032 0.535 0.299 0.047 <0.001
Mother’s education level (ref = no education)
Primary − 0.115 0.031 <0.001 − 0.125 0.039 0.001
Secondary and higher − 0.164 0.042 <0.001 − 0.250 0.057 <0.001
Unknown − 0.095 0.039 0.016 0.012 0.049 0.802
Gender of household head (ref = male)
Female 0.011 0.024 0.633   NA  
Type of toilet facility (ref = no facilities)
Pit latrine − 0.158 0.035 <0.001 − 0.078 0.043 0.072
Flush toilet − 0.165 0.062 0.008 0.102 0.114 0.366
Household size 0.009 0.003 0.006 0.001 0.004 0.705
Wealth index − 0.158 0.019 <0.001 − 0.503 0.029 <0.001
Cluster altitude (in 100 m) − 0.016 0.005 0.002 − 0.089 0.009 <0.001
EVI 0.068 0.057 0.229 0.405 0.121 0.001
LST 0.011 0.015 0.452 0.019 0.033 0.563
  1. NA not applicable as the factor was not incorporated into the marginal model for that response
  2. Significant at 5% level of significance