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Table 5 Economic burden: production losses before and after iron fortification of wheat flour and condiments by age-group

From: Reducing the burden of iron deficiency anemia in Cote D’Ivoire through fortification

 Pre-school childrenSchool-aged childrenAdultsTotal
Million USD
After condiment and flour fortification (mean (95% CI))411 [255.5: 623.1]444.3 [221: 750.6]34.6 [26.1: 44.2]889.9 [581.5: 1306.8]
After flour and before condiment fortification (mean (95% CI))425.4 [264.8: 644.5]471.5 [234.6: 796.3]36.3 [27.5: 46.4]933.1 [609.2: 1371]
Before flour fortification (mean (95% CI))437.6 [272.6: 662.6]502.4 [250.1: 847]38.2 [28.9: 48.8]978.1 [636.8: 1438.1]
Absolute change attributable to flour fortification (mean)12.230.91.945
Absolute change attributable to condiment fortification (mean)14.427.21.743.2
% change
Reduction attributable to flour fortification2.8%6.1%5.0%4.6%
Reduction attributable to condiment fortification3.4%5.8%4.7%4.6%
  1. CI confidence interval. This refers to constructed 95% confidence intervals as calculated in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Pre-school children: 0.5 to 4 years; school age children: 5 to 14 years; adult men and women: 15 to 64 years