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Table 9 Economic burden: production losses before and after iron fortification of wheat flour and condiments by age-group using anemia attributed to iron deficiency by Petry et al.

From: Reducing the burden of iron deficiency anemia in Cote D’Ivoire through fortification

  Pre-school children School-aged children Adults Total
million USD
After condiment and flour fortification (mean (95% CI)) 160.8 [101.5: 240.8] 297.3 [145.1: 511.9] 33.4 [25.3: 42.6] 491.5 [312.5: 737.6]
After flour and before condiment fortification (mean (95% CI)) 166.4 [105.3: 249.1] 315.6 [154.1: 542.9] 35.1 [26.6: 44.7] 517 [328.2: 776.4]
Before flour fortification (mean (95%CI)) 171.2 [108.4: 256.2] 336.3 [164.4: 578.1] 36.9 [28: 47] 544.5 [344.5: 818.3]
Absolute change attributable to flour fortification (mean) 4.8 20.7 1.8 27.5
Absolute change attributable to condiment fortification (mean) 5.6 18.3 1.7 25.5
% change
Reduction attributable to flour fortification 2.80% 6.16% 4.88% 5.05%
Reduction attributable to condiment fortification 3.48% 6.16% 5.09% 5.19%
  1. CI confidence interval. This refers to constructed 95% confidence intervals as calculated in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Pre-school children: 0.5 to 4 years; school age children: 5 to 14 years: adult men and women: 15 to 64 years
  2. Using the attribution of anemia to iron deficiency of 25% for pre-school age children and 30% for school age children, 37% for women and 18% for men by Petry et al. [5]