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Table 5 Results of regression analysis: determinants of the cooking effort indicator (E)

From: Aiming for better use of convenience food: an analysis based on meal production functions at home

  Breakfast Lunch Dinner
Usage intensity of convenience food (F) − 6.751 (0.093)*** − 2.884 (0.049)*** − 10.662 (0.125)***
Busy − 13.902 (0.535)*** − 2.530 (0.334)*** − 10.458 (0.833)***
Cooking is troublesome − 1.885 (0.405)*** − 1.111 (0.332)*** − 6.037 (0.672)***
I like eating out − 12.568 (0.400)*** − 3.741 (0.300)*** − 5.416 (0.630)***
Buying food is troublesome 0.891 (0.459)* − 0.978 (0.323)*** 1.440 (0.693)**
Buying food with emphasis on price − 0.328 (0.410) 1.560 (0.290)*** − 7.260 (0.667)***
Flexible with regard to cooking 14.548 (0.403)*** 2.688 (0.285)*** 5.288 (0.626)***
High interest in health 2.776 (0.394)*** 2.819 (0.336)*** − 5.905 (0.669)***
Prefer luxury foods 3.953 (0.370)*** 0.025 (0.316) 5.744 (0.657)***
Make plan and cook 10.915 (0.380)*** 3.677 (0.267)*** 21.980 (0.658)***
Resistance to purchase cooked food − 3.169 (0.425)*** 0.538 (0.272)** − 3.759 (0.678)***
Emphasis on the number of foodstuffs 5.214 (0.424)*** 0.656 (0.291)** 9.266 (0.651)***
High interest in diet − 2.624 (0.403)*** − 1.009 (0.306)*** − 7.068 (0.684)***
Prefer natural foodstuffs 1.821 (0.402)*** 2.141 (0.327)*** 3.503 (0.697)***
Emphasis on the number of dishes − 1.744 (0.434)*** − 0.977 (0.319)*** 10.205 (0.710)***
I like cooking − 1.436 (0.422)*** 1.542 (0.357)*** 1.214 (0.715)*
Cook on a case-by-case basis − 0.995 (0.379)*** 0.870 (0.288)*** − 0.878 (0.622)
Full-time home cook 15.206 (0.371)*** 1.475 (0.262)*** 10.144 (0.603)***
4–6 million yen (measurement standard < 4 million yen) − 13.326 (0.719)*** − 4.166 (0.453)*** − 15.041 (1.169)***
6–8 million yen − 10.463 (0.718)*** − 3.910 (0.487)*** − 18.575 (1.175)***
8–10 million yen 11.378 (0.978)*** − 1.463 (0.545)*** − 8.275 (1.214)***
>10 million − 4.297 (0.807)*** − 8.190 (0.525)*** − 7.602 (1.310)***
30s (measurement standard, 20s) 13.718 (0.592)*** 3.963 (0.648)*** 15.997 (1.016)***
40s 15.051 (0.596)*** 4.554 (0.614)*** 24.588 (0.988)***
50s 10.642 (0.643)*** 1.624 (0.685)** 23.915 (1.107)***
60s 10.107 (1.362)*** 5.420 (0.998)*** 11.523 (2.153)***
Elderly people (≥ 60 years old) living together 28.266 (0.987)*** 5.442 (0.627)*** 53.760 (1.575)***
Constant term 81.262 (1.218)*** 36.284 (0.811)*** 123.365 (1.640)***
Log-likelihood − 405,439.480 − 222,594.860 − 401,985.520
Pseudo R2 0.023 0.012 0.019
Number of obs 76,444 47,063 70,151
  1. Numbers in parentheses indicate robust standard errors
  2. ***, **, and * indicate that the estimate is statistically significant with a significance level of 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively