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Table 2 Study characteristics and mean sodium intake (mg/day) analysed using 24-h urinary excretion

From: Salt intake was higher among males and those with high BMI and waist circumference: introduction to the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS), a population-based salt intake survey in Malaysia

Characteristics Unweighted count % Population size Mean 95% confidence interval
Lower Upper
Malaysia 798 100 14,243,927 3167 2987 3346
Gender
 Male 340 51.7 7,365,184 3519 3209 3828
 Female 458 48.3 6,887,075 2790 2650 2931
Age group (years)
 18–24 53 6.6 955,086 3266 2748 3783
 25–34 117 14.7 1,983,140 3556 3099 4013
 35–44 130 16.3 2,447,950 3531 3083 3980
 45–54 175 21.9 3,160,650 2955 2751 3159
 55–64 190 23.8 3,232,280 3047 2790 3305
 65+ 133 16.7 2,473,153 2882 2507 3257
Location
 Urban 319 40.0 10,809,259 3254 3024 3483
 Rural 479 60.0 3,443,000 2894 2746 3041
Ethnicity
 Malay 501 62.8 9,480,360 3214 2992 3436
 Chinese 87 11.0 1,681,915 2926 2575 3278
 Indian 44 5.5 1,205,438 3408 2399 4417
 Bumiputera Sabah 89 11.1 1,352,484 2879 2489 3270
 Bumiputera Sarawak 64 8.0 342,464 2992 2740 3244
 Others 13 1.6 189,599 3772 2928 4616
Marital status
 Never married 94 11.8 1,644,183 3407 3060 3754
 Married 594 74.4 11,056,754 3224 3018 3430
 Separated 24 3.0 351,593 2374 1812 2937
 Widow/er 86 10.8 1,183,117 2528 2223 2833
Household income (RM)
 < 1000 239 29.9 3,357,918 2943 2749 3137
 1000–1999 153 19.2 2,516,305 3262 2901 3623
 2000–2999 131 16.4 2,284,080 3162 2700 3624
 3000–3999 90 11.3 1,707,701 2963 2487 3439
 > 4000 185 23.2 4,386,255 3365 3049 3682
Academic level
 None 64 5.1 731,726 2729 2112 3346
 Primary education 167 18.2 2,587,785 3051 2667 3436
 Secondary education 383 51.1 7,286,332 3232 2987 3476
 Tertiary education 184 25.6 3,646,416 3207 2956 3457
Occupation group
 Public sector 117 14.7 1,988,275 3326 2872 3780
 Private sector 126 15.8 2,451,061 3338 2990 3686
 Self-employed 179 22.4 3,278,506 3469 3038 3900
 Housewives 214 26.7 3,364,461 2905 2722 3088
 Unemployed 113 14.2 1,943,337 2887 2537 3237
 Student 15 1.9 280,201 2919 2183 3655
 Others 34 4.3 946,419 2919 2426 3411
Body mass indexa (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<18.5) 35 4.5 640115 2029 1698 2361
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 285 35.2 5009039 2877 2671 3082
 Pre-obese (25.0–29.9) 287 37.5 5350422 3285 3007 3562
 Obese (≥  30.0) 191 22.8 3252684 3643 3216 4070
Waist circumference (male) b(cm)
 < 90 410 48.7 6,945,737 2811 2639 2982
 ≥ 90 387 51.3 7,311,322 3506 3233 3777
Waist circumferenceb (female) b (cm)
 < 80 180 20.1 2,866,271 2675 2427 2923
 ≥ 80 620 79.9 11,396,476 3291 3098 3483
Blood pressurec (mmHg)
 < 140/90 489 61.3 8,986,647 3180 2952 3408
 ≥ 140/90 309 38.7 5,265,613 3144 2927 3360
  1. aBMI categories referring to WHO (1998) [14]
  2. bWaist circumference referring to WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000) [16]
  3. cBlood pressure referring to the Malaysian Ministry of Health Guideline [17]