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Table 3 Association between KPP related to excessive 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

From: Knowledge, perception, and practice related to sodium intake among Malaysian adults: findings from the Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS)

KPP Crude ORa p Adjusted ORb p
Age
 < 35 years 2.001 (1.259-3.180) 0.023 1.589 (0.765-3.298) 0.211
 35-44 years 2.257 (1.120-4.545) 0.011 1.919 (0.793-4.646) 0.146
 45-54 years 2.654 (1.260-5.589) 0.006 1.774 (0.924-3.403) 0.084
 55-64 years 2.377 (1.291-4.378) 0.138 1.288 (0.612-2.708) 0.501
 ≥65 years 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Sex
 Female 0.497 (0.292-0.845) 0.010 0.375 (0.218-0.646) 0.01*
 Male 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Ethnicity
 Chinese 0.736 (0.360-1.505) 0.397 0.801 (0.395-1.625) 0.534
 Indian 0.512 (0.210-1.249) 0.139 0.634 (0.262-1.534) 0.309
 Indigenous people 0.728 (0.443-1.197) 0.208 0.824 (0.460-1.473) 0.509
 Malay 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Marital status
 Married 0.921 (0.446-1.905) 0.823 0.837 (0.437-1.604) 0.588
 Separated/widowed 0.331 (0.130-0.845) 0.021 0.450 (0.178-1.135) 0.090
 Never married 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Household income
 < RM 1000 0.481 (0.264-0.877) 0.018 0.945 (0.450-1.984) 0.880
 RM 1000-1999 0.859 (0.409-1.808) 0.687 1.176 (0.563-2.457) 0.662
 RM 2000-2999 0.585 (0.266-1.286) 0.180 0.699 (0.330-1.479) 0.345
 RM 3000-3999 0.579 (0.224-1.497) 0.256 0.706 (0.303-1.644) 0.415
 ≥ RM 4000 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Employment status
 Self-employed 1.068 (0.550-2.076) 0.844 1.183 (0.558-2.510) 0.657
 Housewives 0.549 (0.307-0.982) 0.043 1.168 (0.579-2.356) 0.644
 Unemployed/students/others 0.400 (0.216-0.740) 0.004 0.489 (0.237-1.012) 0.054
 Employed 1.00 (ref.)   1.0 (ref.)  
Do you think that a high salt diet could cause a serious health problem?
 Yes 1.316 (0.820-2.111) 0.251 1.622 (0.905-2.906) 0.103
 No/ do not know 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
Self-perceived salt intake
 Too much 1.129 (0.532-2.396) 0.749 -  
 Too little 0.735 (0.421-1.283) 0.275   
 Just the right amount 1.00 (ref.)    
Do you do anything on a regular basis to control your salt/sodium intake?
 Yes 1.372 (0.866-2.176) 0.176 1.329 (0.816-2.163) 0.250
 No/ do not know 1.00 (ref.)   1.00 (ref.)  
  1. Dependent variable: 24-h urinary sodium excretion (reference category = < 2000 mg)
  2. *significant at P < 0.05
  3. aOnly P ≤ 0.25 will be recruited into adjusted model in complex sample logistic regression
  4. bControlling variables for adjusted model in complex sample logistic regression: age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, education achievement, household income, and employment status