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Table 2 Factors associated with hypertension from univariate and multivariate logistic regression model

From: The prevalence of hypertension among Malaysian adults and its associated risk factors: data from Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS)

Characteristic   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Sex Male 1 .00 (reference) 0.986   
Female 1.02 (0.78–1.28)    
Age group >34 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
35–44 3.34 (2.04–5.45) <0.001 2.39 (1.39–4.09) 0.002
45–54 7.35 (4.62–11.67) <0.001 5.50 (3.23–9.38) <0.001
55–64 19.35 (12.01–31.17) <0.001 13.56 (7.77–23.64) <0.001
>65 32.04 (18.58–55.25 <0.001 25.38 (13.13–48.66) <0.001
Academic level None/primary 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
Secondary 0.37 (0.28–0.51) <0.001 0.69 (0.46–1.02) 0.064
Tertiary 0.19 (0.14–0.29) <0.001 0.58 (0.34–0.98) 0.042
Household income <RM1999 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
RM2000–RM3999 0.65 (0.49–0.87) 0.003 1.54 (1.04–2.28) 0.031
>RM4000 0.43 (0.31–0.59) <0.001 0.74 (0.46–1.16) 0.735
Marital status Single/widowed 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
Married 1.32 (1.01–1.74) 0.045 1.12 (0.47–1.61) 0.550
BMI (kg/m2) <25 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
25–30 1.85 (1.39–2.46) <0.001 1.84 (1.18–2.86) 0.007
≥ 30 3.34 (2.40–4.64) <0.001 4.29 (2.55–7.29) <0.001
WC, cm      
 Men <90, women <80 No 1 .00 (reference)   1 .00 (reference)  
 Men ≥90, women ≥80 Yes 2.53 (1.94–3.30) <0.001 1.16 (0.74–1.79) 0.518
Smoking status No 1 .00 (reference) 0.003 1 .00 (reference) 0.82
Yes 0.63 (0.46–0.86)   0.96 (0.64–1.42)  
Physical activity Inactive 1 .00 (reference) 0.438   
Active 0.91 (0.71–1.16)    
Diabetes No 1 .00 (reference) <0.001 1 .00 (reference) <0.001
Yes 5.71 (3.89–8.39)   2.48 (1.59–3.87)  
Sodium intake (mg/d) < 2000 1 .00 (reference) <0.001 1 .00 (reference) 0.686
≥ 2000 0.53 (0.42–0.68)   0.94 (0.68–1.29)  
  1. *Significance at p value < 0.05