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Table 1 Sample and nutritional status among adults in Afghanistan, 2018

From: Underweight and overweight/obesity among adults in Afghanistan: prevalence and correlates from a national survey in 2018

Variable (#missing values) Sample Normal weight Underweight Overweight Obesity p value
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)  
All 3779 1774 (49.5) 264 (7.8) 1071 (25.5) 636 (17.2)  
Age in years (#30)
 18-29 1382 (44.1) 776 (58.8) 131 (8.9) 307 (21.0) 144 (11.3) < 0.001
 30-44 1124 (32.2) 460 (42.7) 69 (7.4) 352 (27.1) 239 (22.8)
 45-69 1243 (23.8) 525 (41.8) 62 (6.2) 402 (31.6) 252 (20.4)
Sex (#4)
 Female 1753 (44.1) 723 (42.1) 156 (9.1) 465 (25.1) 389 (23.7) < 0.001
 Male 2022 (55.9) 1051 (55.3) 108 (6.7) 606 (25.9) 247 (12.1)
Education (#3)
 None 2094 (59.0) 940 (46.9) 147 (6.4) 582 (26.8) 411 (20.0) 0.133
 Primary or less 659 (16.4) 309 (53.0) 38 (8.5) 206 (23.1) 103 (15.4)
 Secondary or more 1023 (24.6) 525 (53.4) 79 (10.7) 283 (24.0) 122 (11.9)
Adult household members (#3)
 1-3 1352 (23.9) 616 (50.5) 102 (7.2) 402 (28.7) 215 (13.7) 0.269
 3-5 1229 (34.3) 606 (49.9) 90 (8.9) 347 (25.6) 178 (15.6)
 ≥6 1195 (41.8) 552 (48.6) 72 (7.1) 322 (23.7) 243 (20.6)
Residence (#1)
 Rural 1797 (42.4) 922 (51.9) 140 (8.3) 471 (25.1) 249 (14.7) 0.306
 Urban 1981 (57.6) 852 (47.7) 124 (7.3) 600 (25.8) 387 (19.1)
Fruit and vegetable consumption (#0)
 ≤1 servings 2415 (59.0) 1164 (50.3) 182 (8.7) 650 (25.3) 401 (15.7) 0.394
 2 servings 883 (29.6) 389 (47.9) 51 (6.8) 285 (27.8) 149 (17.5)
 ≥3 servings 481 (11.4) 221 (49.4) 31 (5.5) 136 (20.9) 86 (24.2)
For meal preparation (#6)
 Mainly butter or ghee 2048 (61.8) 980 (49.3) 142 (6.3) 546 (24.9) 365 (19.5) 0.022
 Vegetable oil 1725 (38.2) 793 (49.9) 122 (10.1) 523 (26.3) 271 (13.7)
Add salt before/when eating (#8)
 Sometimes or rarely or never 2697 (68.4) 1242 (48.1) 186 (8.6) 792 (26.5) 460 (16.8) 0.226
 Always or often 1074 (31.6) 530 (52.5) 76 (5.8) 279 (23.5) 176 (18.2)
Eats processed foods high in salt (#27)
 Sometimes or rarely or never 3077 (87.5) 1424 (49.5) 216 (7.8) 893 (25.6) 524 (17.0) 0.930
 Always or often 675 (12.5) 338 (48.7) 47 (7.3) 173 (25.2) 107 (18.9)
Meals outside home (#55)
 0 2477 (65.9) 1133 (47.0) 178 (8.3) 684 (25.7) 468 (19.0) 0.374
 ≥ 1 1247 (34.1) 610 (53.9) 79 (6.5) 376 (25.4) 376 (14.1)
Physical activity (#35)
 Low 1384 (38.4) 591 (41.5) 94 (7.6) 377 (27.1) 303 (23.8) < 0.001
 Moderate 624 (18.3) 267 (50.9) 46 (7.3) 202 (24.4) 106 (17.4)
 High 1736 (43.3) 903 (56.0) 123 (8.1) 480 (24.6) 221 (11.4)
Sedentary behaviour (#24)
 < 8 h/day 2128 (51.9) 1037 (54.5) 144 (6.6) 580 (23.9) 346 (15.1) 0.012
 ≥8 h/day 1627 (48.1) 725 (44.1) 120 (9.1) 486 (27.1) 286 (19.6)
Current tobacco use (#3)
 No 2910 (72.0) 1348 (50.2) 207 (7.0) 825 (25.0) 502 (17.8) 0.557
 Yes 866 (28.0) 426 (47.7) 57 (9.6) 246 (26.9) 134 (15.8)
Ever alcohol use (#3)
 No 3732 (99.5) 1751 (49.4) 261 (7.8) 1059 (25.5) 630 (17.3) 0.835
 Yes 44 (0.5) 23 (58.9) 3 (8.4) 12 (21.5) 6 (11.2)
Hypertension (#40)
 No 2566 (69.3) 1376 (56.9) 218 (9.8) 667 (21.9) 304 (11.4) < 0.001
 Yes 1173 (30.7) 391 (32.6) 46 (3.1) 404 (33.8) 331 (30.4)
Type 2 diabetes (#292)
 No 3083 (90.3) 1500 (52.2) 211 (7.7) 870 (25.1) 480 (14.9) < 0.001
 Yes 404 (9.7) 147 (27.3) 26 (4.8) 132 (31.4) 98 (36.6)
Heart attack or stroke (#3)
 No 3488 (90.6) 1658 (49.6) 250 (7.9) 978 (25.5) 571 (17.1) 0.933
 Yes 288 (9.4) 116 (48.8) 14 (6.5) 93 (25.9) 65 (18.7)