Skip to main content

Table 2 Multivariable associations with underweight and overweight/obesity (with normal weight as reference category)

From: Underweight and overweight/obesity among adults in Afghanistan: prevalence and correlates from a national survey in 2018

Variable Underweight Overweight/Obesity
  Adjusted RRR (95% CI) p value Adjusted RRR (95% CI) p value
Age in years
 18–29 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 30–44 0.90 (0.55, 1.77) 0.972 2.00 (1.51, 2.66) < 0.001
 45–69 0.91 (0.45, 1.87) 0.805 1.58 (1.09, 2.31) 0.017
Sex
 Female 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Male 0.30 (0.15, 0.58) < 0.001 0.74 (0.47, 1.17) 0.201
Education
 None 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Primary or less 2.01 (0.67, 6.02) 0.210 0.88 (0.58, 1.32) 0.528
 Secondary or more 2.75 (0.98, 7.71) 0.054 1.06 (0.65, 1.74) 0.809
Adult household members
 1–3 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 3–5 1.22 (0.66, 2.26) 0.533 0.82 (0.55, 1.20) 0.299
 ≥ 6 0.96 (0.52, 1.80) 0.908 0.93 (0.69, 1.31) 0.689
Residence
 Rural 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Urban 0.70 (0.42, 1.15) 0.156 1.05 (0.79, 1.40) 0.733
Fruit and vegetable consumption
 ≤ 1 servings 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 2 servings 0.85 (0.49, 1.46) 0.548 1.11 (0.69, 1.79) 0.670
 ≥ 3 servings 0.36 (0.09, 1.50) 0.159 1.26 (0.84, 1.90) 0.264
For meal preparation
 Mainly butter or ghee 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Vegetable oil 1.65 (0.82, 3.31) 0.157 0.99 (0.78, 1.27) 0.967
Add salt before/when eating
 Sometimes or rarely or never 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Always or often 0.48 (0.28, 1.03) 0.062 0.91 (0.64, 1.29) 0.590
Eats processed foods high in salt
 Sometimes or rarely or never 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Always or often 0.85 (0.44, 1.64) 0.620 1.36 (0.74, 2.50) 0.315
Meals outside home
 0 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 ≥ 1 0.73 (0.20, 2.64) 0.624 1.03 (0.57, 1.87) 0.923
Physical activity
 Low 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Moderate 0.72 (0.32, 1.64) 0.434 0.75 (0.51, 1.10) 0.143
 High 0.77 (0.43, 1.38) 0.371 0.70 (0.50, 0.98) 0.037
Sedentary behaviour
 < 8 h/day 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 ≥ 8 h/day 1.85 (1.11, 3.10) 0.019 1.24 (0.95, 1.63) 0.112
Current tobacco use
 No 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Yes 2.58 (1.08, 6.16) 0.033 1.13 (0.83, 1.55) 0.439
Ever alcohol use
 No 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Yes 0.73 (0.08, 6.79) 0.783 0.41 (0.08, 2.08) 0.279
Hypertension
 No 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Yes 0.51 (0.27, 0.95) 0.034 2.74 (1.89, 3.96) < 0.001
Type 2 diabetes
 No 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
 Yes 1.17 (0.53, 2.52) 0.704 1.82 (1.13, 2.94) 0.014
  1. RRR relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval