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Table 2 Results of bivariate (unadjusted) and multivariable (adjusted) mixed effect Poisson regression for explanatory variables of health service utilization score, Ethiopia

From: Inequalities in adherence to the continuum of maternal and child health service utilization in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis

Variables Unadjusted Adjusted
RR (95% CI) p values RR (95% CI) p values
Random effect only model    0.470 * (0.41–0.054)  < 0.05
Fixed effects
Sex
MaleRC     
Female 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.061 0.98 (0.94–0.02) 0.399
Birth order
FirstRC     
Second and above 0.62 (0.51–0.65) 0.000 0.42 (0.39–0.44) 0.000
Age of the mother
15–24RC     
25–34 0.75 (0.71–0.78) 0.000 0.76 (0.72–0.81) 0.000
34+ 0.85 (0.81–0.89) 0.000 0.43–0.39–0.47) 0.000
Types of regions
Highly urbanized/more developedRC     
Medium-level urbanization 0.07 (0.04–0.11) 0.000 0.65 (0.56–0.76) 0.000
Low urbanized/least developed 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.000 0.31 (0.26–0.38) 0.000
Education of mother
No educationRC     
Primary level 1.44 (1.38–1.51) 0.000 1.49 (1.41–1.57) 0.000
Secondary and higher level 1.83 (1.72–1.95) 0.000 1.77 (1.64–1.90) 0.000
Type of family structure
MonogamyRC     
Polygamy 0.89 (0.83–0.95) 0.001 0.87 (0.81–0.93) 0.000
Parity
0–3RC     
4–6 0.57 (0.54–0.59) 0.000 0.10 (0.097–0.11) 0.000
7 and above 0.57 (0.54–0.61) 0.000 0.002 (0.002–0.003) 0.000
Ever termination
NoRC     
Yes 1.12 (1.05–1.19) 0.001 1.10 (1.02–1.17) 0.005
Work status
NoRC     
Yes 0.79 (0.76–0.83) 0.000 0.87 (0.83–0.91) 0.000
Wealth index
Poorest/poorerRC     
Middle 1.23 (1.16–1.31) 0.000 1.12 (1.05–1.20) 0.001
Richest/richer 1.64 (1.54–1.74) 0.000 1.19 (1.14–1.27) 0.000
Intimate Partners Violence/IPV
No or low violenceRC     
Mild violence 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 0.000 1.06 (0.99–1.12) 0.071
High violence 1.24 (1.18–1.32) 0.000 1.10 (1.04–1.18) 0.001
Access to radio
YesRC     
No 0.74 (0.07–0.78) 0.000 0.86 (0.82–0.90) 0.000
Constant 0.07 (0.04–0.10) 0.000   
(Scale) offset 1    
Deviance goodness of fit/DF = 1.31
Number of groups: 642
    
  1. RC Reference Category, RR rate ratio, CI confidence interval