From: Effects of probiotics on child growth: a systematic review
Citation Country | Sample size(n) | Age/Gender: M/F | Description of intervention (I) and control (C) groups | Duration of intervention and Follow up | Outcome measures |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Healthy children | |||||
Firmansyah et al. 2009 [29] Indonesia | n = 393 | 12 months | I: Bifdobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosusin | Duration:12 months | Weight gain per day and change in length measured between 12 months and 16 months |
I: 199 | Gender: both (M/F): | 200 ml Milk twice daily + prebiotics and LC-PUFA + Normal Diet | No Follow up | Other unrelated outcomes (motor and behavioural functions were measured at the end of the intervention) | |
C: 194 | I = 101/98 | C: 200 ml Milk twice daily + Normal Diet with no probiotics | Measurements for weight gain taken after 4 months (16 months of age) | ||
C = 102/92 | |||||
Scalabrin et al. 2009 [33] USA | n = 286 | 14 days | I: Lactobacillus rhamnosus in | Duration: from 14–120 days of age | Weight growth rate between 14 and 120 days of age |
I(a): 94 | Gender: both | (a): Extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) | No follow-up | Length | |
I(b): 98 | (M/F): | (b): Partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) | Head circumference | ||
C: 94 | I(a): 50/44 | C: EHF without probiotic | (Length and head circumference measures were obtained at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days of age) | ||
I(b): 49/49 | All children were exclusively formula fed and on demand | ||||
C: 44/50 | |||||
Saavedra et al. 2004 [32] USA | n = 131 | 3–24 months | I (High supplement (HS)): 1 x 10^{7} Bifdobacterium lactis Bb12 and streptococcus thermophilus CFU/g of standard milk based formula | Mean duration: 210 ± 127 days | Monthly weight and length |
I(HS): 44 | Gender: both (M/F): | I (Low supplement(LS)): 1 x 10^{6} Bifdobacterium lactis Bb12 and streptococcus thermophilus CFU/g of standard milk based formula | No follow-up | ||
I(LS): 43 | I(HS): 22/17 | C: Standard milk based formula with no probiotics | |||
C: 44 | I(LS): 21/19 | Intake in each group had to be ≥ 240 ml/day for more than 14 days | |||
C: 16/24 | |||||
Gibson et al. 2009 [30] Australia | n = 142 | 0–10 days | I: Bifdobacterium lactis 3 · 85 x 108 CFU+ | Duration: 7 months | Weight gain per day, recumbent length, head circumference for 7 months, weight gain (g/d) from day 14 to day 119 (period of exclusively feeding the test formulas) |
I: 72 | Gender: both | LC-PUFA(DHA) and AA in infant formula | No Follow up | ||
C: 70 | Intervention Female: 56% | C: infant formula | Others were BMI, and occurrence of adverse events | ||
Control | (Measurements conducted at approx. 2, 4, 6, 13, 17, 26, 30 weeks of age) | ||||
Female: 53% | All children were exclusively formula fed but were allowed weaning from 4 months during which at least 500 ml/day of formula to be consumed | ||||
Ziegler et al. 2003 [34] USA | n = 122 | 6–10 days | I(RP + P): Bifdobacterium lactis in reduced protein formula (RP) | Duration: Fed till 112 days of age (approximately 4 months of age) | Weight and length gain per day between 8-56 days, 56–112 days and 8–112 days |
I(RP + P): 40 | Gender: both M/F ratio | I(RP): Reduced protein formula | |||
I(RP): 40 | Not reported | C: Normal protein formula | No Follow up | ||
C: 42 | |||||
Puccio et al. 2007 [31] Italy | n = 138 | Full term infants (<14 days) | I: 2 x 107 Bifdobacterium longum BL999 + 4 g/litre prebiotic in Infant formula | Duration: 7 months | Mean weight gain, recumbent length, head circumference at 14, 28, 56, 84 and 112 days of age |
I: 42 | Gender M/F: | C: Formula without probiotics | No Follow up | ||
C: 55 | I: 20/22 | ||||
C: 25/30 | |||||
Huet et al. 2006 [35] France | n = 203 | 1 – 28 days | I: Bifdobacterium lactis infant formula | Duration: 90 days | Daily weight gain, daily increase in height from day 0 to day 90 |
I: 117 | Gender: both M/F ratio not reported | C: Infant formula | No follow up | ||
C: 86 | |||||
Gil-Campos et al. 2011 [27] Spain | N = 137 | One month old infants | I: 107 cfu/g Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 + galactooligosaccharides (0.3 g/100 ml) in infant formula | Duration: 5 months | Average daily weight gain between baseline (one month) and 4 months of age |
I: 66 | Gender M/F: | C: galactooligosaccharides (0.3 g/100 ml) in infant formula | No follow up | ||
C: 71 | I: 34/27 | ||||
C: 38/22 | |||||
Undernourished children | |||||
Sazawal et al. 2010 [16] India | n = 624 | 1–3 years | I: 1.9 x 10^{7} CFU per day of Bifdobacterium lactis HN019 + 2.4 g/day prebiotic in milk powder | Duration: One year | Weight gain at 6 months and 1 year |
I: 312 | Gender: both M/F ratio not reported | C: milk powder | No follow-up | ||
C: 312 | |||||
Saran et al. 2002 [13] India | n = 100 | 2–5 years | I: Lactobacillus acidophilus in curd (beet juice added) 1 x 10^{8} organisms/gm | Duration: 6 months | Body weight, height for 6 months |
I: 50 | Gender: both | C: Isocaloric supplement (biscuits) | No follow up | Incidence of morbidity with respect to diarrhoea- frequency, severity and duration | |
C: 50 | Equal numbers | ||||
He et al. 2005 [12] China | n = 402 | 3–5 years | I: Thermophilus streptococci, Bulgaria lactobacilli and bifidum bacteria in yogurt | Duration: 9 months | Body weight, height at 3,6 and 9 months |
I: 201 | Gender: both | + normal diet | No follow up | ||
C: 201 | M/F: | C: Normal Diet | |||
I: 106/95 | |||||
C: 111/90 | |||||
Surono et al. 2011 [28] Indonesia | n = 79 | 15-54 months | I: 1 mg lyophilized Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 (2.31 x 10^{8} cfu/day) in 125 ml commercial UHT low fat milk | Duration: 90 days | Body weight |
I: 39 | Gender: both | No follow up | |||
C: 40 | M/F: | C: 1 mg maltodextrin in 125 ml commercial UHT low fat milk | |||
I: 17/22 | |||||
C: 17/23 |