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Table 3 Associations between possible food security determinants and months of adequate household food provisioning

From: Socio-economic determinants of household food security and women’s dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Possible determinants of MAHFP Total MAHFP Crudea Adjustedb
   Moderate food security Low food security Moderate food security Low food security
Weighted % (n) mean (95 %CI) RRR (95 % CI) p value RRR (95 % CI) p value RRR (95 % CI) p value RRR (95 % CI) p value
Total (2808) 9.3 (range 0, 12)        
Respondent characteristics           
Age (2808)   1.03 (1.01, 1.04) 0.007 1.04 (1.03, 1.04) 0.000 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) 0.005 1.04 (1.03, 1.05) 0.000
Religion           
Islamc 90.3 (2499) 9.3 (8.2, 10.4)         
Hindu 9.7 (309) 8.9 (7.6, 10.2) 1.16 (0.44, 3.04) 0.715 1.16 (0.57, 2.37) 0.632 1.47 (0.60, 3.65) 0.335 1.31 (0.55, 3.12) 0.481
Pregnancy status           
Not pregnantc 94.7 (2659) 9.3 (8.2, 10.3) 0.64 (0.32, 0.74) 0.176 1.01 (0.74, 1.39) 0.932 0.76 (0.43, 1.35) 0.289 1.12 (0.78, 1.61) 0.464
Pregnant 5.3 (149) 9.2 (7.6, 10.7)
Food availability determinants         
Ownership of land         
Does not own landc 53.7 (1534) 8.0 (6.2, 8.9)         
Owns land 46.3 (1271) 10.7 (10.1, 11.3) 0.35 (0.28, 0.44) 0.000 0.19 (0.14, 0.28) 0.000 0.47 (0.39, 0.57) 0.000 0.28 (0.18, 0.42) 0.000
Ownership of livestock
Does not own livestockc 19.9 (598) 7.8 (6.3, 7.3)         
Owns livestock 80.1 (2210) 9.6 (8.6, 10.6) 0.87 (0.58, 1.32) 0.453 0.46 (0.37, 0.57) 0.000 1.13 (0.71, 1.81) 0.543 0.65 (0.51, 0.82) 0.004
Use of vegetable gardens
Do not use gardensc 48.3 (1293) 9.1 (7.8, 10.4)         
Use gardens 51.8 (1515) 9.4 (8.3, 10.5) 0.54 (0.28, 1.04) 0.062 0.79 (0.41, 1.54) 0.427 0.65 (0.40, 1.07) 0.081 1.05 (0.57, 1.94) 0.853
Food access determinants           
Wealth (PCA)           
Lowest tertilec 31.9 (931) 7.2 (5.5, 8.8)         
Middle tertile 32.8 (870) 9.5 (8.3, 10.6) 0.61 (0.42, 0.90) 0.020 0.34 (0.22, 0.51) 0.001 0.81 (0.56, 1.19) 0.230 0.49 (0.29, 0.84) 0.018
Top tertile 35.4 (996) 11.0 (10.7, 11.3) 0.20 (0.10, 0.37) 0.001 0.08 (0.05, 0.14) 0.000 0.36 (0.18, 0.70) 0.010 0.18 (0.10, 0.33) 0.000
Woman’s freedom travel to market alone  
Neverc 62.9 (1835) 8.9 (7.8, 10.1)         
Always or sometimes 37.1 (973) 9.8 (8.9, 10.8) 1.19 (0.50, 2.86) 0.639 0.61 (0.39, 0.96) 0.037 1.12 (0.48, 2.61) 0.759 0.56 (0.36, 0.85) 0.015
Woman’s participation in decision-making relating to daily expenditures       
Noc 63.2 (1794) 9.2 (7.9, 10.5)         
Yes 36.8 (1014) 9.4 (8.5, 10.3) 1.42 (0.99, 2.02) 0.053 1.04 (0.58, 1.86) 0.886 1.35 (0.88, 2.08) 0.139 1.07 (0.66, 1.71) 0.751
Food utilisation determinants        
Knowledge of undernutrition prevention methods (number of methods known)      
0–2c 76.2 (2101) 9.2 (7.9, 10.4)         
≥3 23.8 (707) 9.6 (8.9, 10.3) 0.85 (0.39, 1.86) 0.631 0.86 (0.46, 1.58) 0.560 1.10 (0.57, 2.14) 0.728 1.05 (0.58, 1.90) 0.854
Women’s literacy
Cannot readc 35.9 (998) 7.9 (6.5, 9.4)         
Can read 64.2 (1810) 10.0 (9.2, 10.9) 0.36 (0.27, 0.49) 0.000 0.27 (0.19, 0.39) 0.000 0.64 (0.44, 0.95) 0.031 0.64 (0.46, 0.90) 0.019
Access to media
No radio or televisionc 63.9 (1815) 8.5 (7.2, 9.8)         
Own radio or television 36.1 (993) 10.7 (10.0, 11.3) 0.34 (0.24, 0.50) 0.000 0.22 (0.15, 0.33) 0.000 0.56 (0.35, 0.90) 0.024 0.49 (0.33, 0.72) 0.004
Number of women of reproductive age in the household
1 womanc 76.9 (2115) 9.2 (8.1, 10.3)         
>1 woman 23.1 (693) 9.4 (8.5, 10.4) 0.90 (0.64, 1.28) 0.505 0.95 (0.82, 1.10) 0.427 1.30 (0.82, 2.08) 0.214 1.46 (1.02, 2.09) 0.041
  1. We have a maximum of 0.04 % missing data on background information and food utilization determinants, a maximum of 0.14 % missing data on food availability determinants, and a maximum of 0.43 % missing data on food access determinants
  2. aAdjusted for clustering and stratification only
  3. bAdjusted for socio-demographic characteristics (age and religion), pregnancy status and the other determinants of food security
  4. cReference group