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Table 2 Water quality indicators (mean ± sd) for LFR, EF, PF, and EFR seasons in the BTB river system

From: Water use practices, water quality, and households’ diarrheal encounters in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, Northern Botswana

  Settlements  
  Boro Maun Xobe Samedupi Chanoga Motopi BOBS
Temperature (°C)
LFR 26.5 ± 0.1 30.3 ± 0.0 32.0 ± 0.1 28.8 ± 0.1 32.1 ± 0.0 30.6 ± 0.0 N/A
EF 19.5 ± 0.2 20.6 ± 0.0 17.8 ± 0.0 19.5 ± 0.0 19.2 ± 0.0 18.8 ± 0.0  
PF 20.9 ± 0.0 23.2 ± 0.0 21.8 ± 0.1 21.5 ± 0.0 24.2 ± 0.0 22.8 ± 0.0  
EFR 26.4 ± 0.0 27.5 ± 0.1 23.7 ± 0.0 24.6 ± 0.2 29.2 ± 0.1 28.4 ± 0.0  
Conductivity (μS cm-1)
LFR 118.2 ± 0.6 123.0 ± 0.7 123.2 ± 0.8 127.4 ± 0.1 134.0 ± 0.0 131.1 ± 0.1 <1000
EF 104.0 ± 1.2 121.6 ± 9.3 124.1 ± 0.3 126.4 ± 0.1 133.0 ± 0.0 152.7 ± 0.8  
PF 92.1 ± 0.8 113.3 ± 1.8 104.1 ± 0.0 110.0 ± 0.1 106.6 ± 2.2 112.8 ± 7.9  
EFR 113.8 ± 0.5 122.1 ± 0.1 126.1 ± 1.0 127.8 ± 0.0 128.3 ± 0.1 119.4 ± 0.1  
pH
LFR 6.7 ± 0.0 7.2 ± 0.1 7.8 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 0.0 8.1 ± 0.0 7.6 ± 0.2 6.5–8
EF 6.8 ± 0.0 7.4 ± 0.3 7.2 ± 0.1 7.5 ± 0.1 7.6 ± 0.0 7.6 ± 0.0  
PF 7.3 ± 0.0 7.4 ± 0.2 7.5 ± 0.1 7.3 ± 0.0 7.7 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.0  
EFR 7.0 ± 0.0 7.1 ± 0.0 7.5 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 0.0 7.8 ± 0.0 6.6 ± 0.1  
Turbidity (NTU)
LFR 2.4 ± 0.2 6.8 ± 0.2 11.4 ± 0.20 4.1 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.4 8.8 ± 0.2 5
EF 0.8 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.7 4.8 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 0.4 10.0 ± 0.5  
PF 1.7 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 0.6 8.0 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 0.2 8.0 ± 0.6 9.0 ± 0.1  
EFR 1.3 ± 0.0 6.3 ± 0.2 3.7 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.7  
E. coli (CFU/100 ml)
LFR 54 ± 1 126 ± 0 127 ± 2 64 ± 4 82 ± 5 98 ± 15 0
EF 6 ± 3 168 ± 1 93 ± 2 186 ± 5 77 ± 2 139 ± 4  
PF 22 ± 0 102 ± 1 70 ± 1 106 ± 3 43 ± 3 32 ± 1  
EFR 20 ± 1 123 ± 1 56 ± 1 84 ± 2 40 ± 4 104 ± 9  
Fecal streptococci (CFU/100 ml)
LFR 67 ± 8 140 ± 11 76 ± 6 93 ± 6 89 ± 3 26 ± 1 0
EF 2 ± 0 66 ± 8 30 ± 4 80 ± 1 21 ± 0 46 ± 2  
PF 12 ± 0 47 ± 1 4 ± 1 21 ± 0 47 ± 2 21 ± 2  
EFR 6 ± 0 53 ± 2 21 ± 4 37 ± 1 54 ± 8 32 ± 1