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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio (with 95% CI) for factors affecting BP measurement, hypertension awareness, antihypertensive medication use and control of hypertension (weighted estimates)

From: Gender differences in hypertension awareness, antihypertensive use and blood pressure control in Bangladeshi adults: findings from a national cross-sectional survey

  Ever measured blood pressure Awareness about own high BP Antihypertensive use among aware hypertensives BP control among antihypertensive users
Characteristics Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Age category
 Younger (35–55 years) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Older (56 years or more) 1.38** (1.11–1.71) 1.32* (1.06–1.65) 2.62*** (1.73–3.97) 1.41* (1.01–1.98) 2.40** (1.46–3.94) 1.18 (0.77–1.81) 1.07 (0.55–2.08) 0.67 (0.42–1.05)
Area of residence
 Rural 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Urban 1.21 (0.93–1.56) 1.35 (0.99–1.84) 0.93 (0.62–1.39) 0.88 (0.63–1.23) 1.13 (0.60–2.16) 1.45 (0.95–2.22) 0.58 (0.30–1.13) 1.24 (0.74–2.07)
Educational attainment
 No education or pre-school 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Primary school (1–5 years) 1.49*** (1.23–1.81) 1.29* (1.02–1.62) 1.34 (0.76–2.34) 1.19 (0.84–1.68) 1.22 (0.58–2.55) 1.05 (0.70–1.59) 0.36* (0.14–0.90) 0.88 (0.53–1.46)
 Secondary or higher (≥6 years) 2.20*** (1.77–2.75) 2.19*** (1.51–3.16) 1.71* (1.01–2.89) 1.96** (1.26–3.03) 1.36 (0.66–2.79) 0.73 (0.42–1.27) 1.15 (0.46–2.87) 1.21 (0.67–2.18)
Wealth status
 Poorest/poorer 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Middle 1.39** (1.10–1.75) 1.36* (1.07–1.72) 1.06 (0.59–1.89) 1.37 (0.90–2.10) 1.48 (0.71–3.10) 1.72* (1.03–2.86) 0.73 (0.26–2.03) 0.79 (0.40–1.51)
 Richer/richest 1.74*** (1.37–2.20) 2.26*** (1.76–2.91) 1.64 (0.96–2.82) 1.38 (0.99–1.93) 2.21* (1.10–4.44) 2.78*** (1.48–3.50) 0.41* (0.16–1.03) 0.56 (0.30–1.06)
Working status
 Currently working 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Not working 1.52** (1.11–2.07) 1.86*** (1.42–2.42) 0.99 (0.61–1.62) 0.95 (0.59–1.53) 1.74 (0.90–3.35) 0.75 (0.37–1.51) 0.50* (0.25–1.01) 0.84 (0.43–1.61)
Marital status
 Currently married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Others 1.39 (0.82–2.34) 1.22 (0.99–1.51) 1.05 (0.41–2.67) 0.86 (0.62–1.19) 1.53 (0.34–6.87) 1.14 (0.77–1.69) 1.61 (0.36–7.14) 0.83 (0.53–1.29)
Nutritional status (BMI)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Thin (<18.5) 0.71*** (0.59–0.84) 0.69*** (0.58–0.83) 0.62 (0.37–1.04) 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.72 (0.37–1.41) 0.65 (0.40–1.08) 1.44 (0.67–3.12) 0.34** (0.17–0.68)
 Overweight/obese (25.0/+) 2.23*** (1.50–3.31) 2.10*** (1.56–2.83) 1.81** (1.18–2.78) 1.54** (1.14–2.10) 1.35 (0.75–2.45) 1.61* (1.09–2.39) 2.74** (1.28–5.84) 0.62 (0.35–1.08)
Region of residence
 Dhaka (central) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Chittagong (south-east) 0.61** (0.43–0.87) 0.58** (0.40–0.83) 1.37 (0.74–2.54) 1.54 (0.95–2.51) 0.67 (0.24–1.63) 0.78 (0.43–1.43) 1.33 (0.55–3.18) 2.45** (1.30–4.64)
 Sylhet (east) 0.75 (0.52–1.09) 0.60** (0.41–0.87) 1.93 (0.96–3.88) 1.61 (0.91–2.86) 1.33 (0.47–3.74) 1.87 (0.84–4.19) 0.54 (0.25–1.15) 1.72 (0.88–3.33)
 Barisal (south) 0.67* (0.47–0.97) 0.62* (0.43–0.89) 1.47 (0.70–3.10) 1.16 (0.70–1.91) 1.03 (0.39–2.71) 1.77 (0.90–3.47) 2.00 (0.68–5.90) 0.53* (0.28–0.99)
 Khulna (west) 1.36 (0.95–1.96) 1.61* (1.09–2.37) 0.66 (0.39–1.11) 0.87 (0.57–1.32) 0.76 (0.31–1.87) 0.64 (0.37–1.11) 0.54 (0.20–1.45) 0.57 (0.29–1.11)
 Rajshahi (mid-west) 0.61** (0.44–0.86) 0.58** (0.41–0.84) 0.94 (0.54–1.63) 1.27 (0.80–2.01) 0.87 (0.34–2.22) 1.62 (0.83–3.16) 0.69 (0.26–1.84) 1.37 (0.70–2.68)
 Rangpur (north-west) 0.82 (0.58–1.15) 0.70* (0.49–1.00) 0.66 (0.37–1.18) 0.56* (0.34–0.91) 0.98 (0.38–2.51) 0.84 (0.42–1.68) 0.52 (0.18–1.45) 0.47* (0.22–1.02)
  1. p value ***<0.001; **0.001–<0.01; *0.01−0.05