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Table 1 Perceived causes of postpartum hemorrhage and maternal death

From: Care-seeking behaviors for maternal and newborn illnesses among self-help group households in Uttar Pradesh, India

Perceived as medical cause of PPH Perceived as supernatural cause of PPH
Bad blood accumulated during pregnancy comes out after delivery   Lifting heavy objects such as cot opens up a weak uterus causing bleeding   When placenta ruptures, there is bleeding   Accidental falls during pregnancy causes bleeding Effect of evil spirit––fear because of hearing unnatural sounds causes bleeding Cat crossing new mother’s path is a bad omen and causes bleeding
Perceived as medical cause of death Perceived as supernatural cause of death
Poisoning and swelling of a woman’s body due to a dead fetus   Fits due to less blood in the body   Continuous bleeding after delivery causes weakness and death   High blood pressure, swelling of the body, and breathlessness   Bleeding due to ruptured uterus   Mental tension (due to marital discord) lead to shock, cold body, and death Effect of evil spirit in the form “bad” air